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Provisional Summary of G10/88 Pottery

July 26, 1988

Pottery Report: G10/88

1988 was a very light season for pottery finds. Slightly over a hundred pieces were catalogued from 1988, and only a small percentage of these were actually publishable, compared to 300+ catalogued in 1987, many of which were both more interesting and more complete than the great majority of 1988 funds.

Some of my time was spent cataloguing about 100 pieces from the 1986 season which had been selected but not properly catalogued. I also received what was done for each year. A small amount of cataloguing remains to be done from 180, 1981 and 1982 (probably less than 3 days’ work), but as this involves a great deal of moving of boxes and searching, it would be best if correlated with our planned research season and a concentrated session of drawing for publication.

Over 11 years of excavation on Site 10, I have now accumulated more than 1,700 catalogued pieces. (For the Francolise villa, Molly Cottons published drawings of 700-800 pieces.) What I want to do next is prepare a first draft of a manuscript on the pottery from both sites (individually), so that in our study season I can work with a draftsman and concentrate on producing the drawings and planning the layout of actual plates to be published. This requires deciding on the size of the published page in advance, I note. However, this is not an insuperable obstacle, because one can plan a small finished area, which may then finally appear inside large margins. This is a question we should be considering now, however.

A major task which needs to be done before next summer’s research season is the correlation and listing of all the pottery drawings which have been done for both sites. This is on the catalogue cards, but it would also be good to check that information against the actual drawings. We have lost some originals to water damage and we should know where the Xeroxes of those drawings are.

If next summer is to be a drive towards a finished manuscript and publication, we will be aiming to produce inked, finished drawings for plates, and not simply pencil drawings. This means we must allow more time for inking – either in advance, which might be very much preferable, or during the actual season.

The following is a list of catalogued pottery from G10 by year:

[check] G10/78 P1001 – P1037

[check] G10/79 P2001 – P2014

[circle] G10/80 P3001 – P3139

[circle] G10/81 P4001 – P4179

[circle] G10/82 P5001 – P5278

[check] G10/83 P6001 – P6089

[check] G10/84 P7001 – P7145

[check] G10/85 P8001 – P8243

[check] G10/86 P9001 – P9201

[check] G10/87 P0001 – P0305

[check] G10/88 P10.001 – P10.114

TOTAL = 1,744


As of July 26, 1988, pottery was returned from the following trenches, areas and layers (double circled layers have not been completely analyzed):


Starred layers include evidence of late IV – mid V + AD. (1 sherd in each case).

Underlined layers include material of 200-250 AD as their latest certain date.

Pieces of ARS tsc C 50, which may date before 250 AD, but continues to 350 AD, appear in the following layers:

AA 13 A(2), B(3), E(2), E(4)

It is clear that all AA 13 layers belong to the latest possible destruction date for the villa (not before 200 A.D.).

Layers dated to the second century AD are tagged.

DD 12 and EE 13 CUN 440 clearly date between 200 – 250 AD.

W15 is consistently dated c. 200 – 250 AD, with the possible exception of AREA Q, which does not have specific material of 200+ AD, but is generally consistent with other layers in W15.

Layers which date c. I/II AD, but can’t be dated more closely, are marked [c with overscore] + signs.

All of S14 is evidently villa destruction; with one possibly ‘medieval’ handle.

Layers where the latest certain date is mid I AD are noted with a circle.

Area x16 is clearly contemporary with villa destruction (200 –250 AD).

The remaining areas of the site produced relatively small amounts of pottery and are therefore more difficult to date from the pottery alone.

In AA 16, area S, layers (5), (7) and (9) come from below floor and are ‘sealed.’ In fact, layer (3), above floor, has joins to a pot which also appears in layers (5) & (7). (P10.094). (What is layer (3)?).

Since the pot appears only from the shoulder down to the base, it cannot be dated closely. Its PP coarse ware fabric is local, and the wet-smoothed elegant manufacture is typical of I or II AD. On the other hand, the body shape is essentially a Republican form, but one which was still common in the first century AD. All the other pieces in the context are not later than early II BC, and some may be a century or more earlier. It is unlikely, but not impossible, that P10.094 is dated c. 200 B.C. A date between 1 AD and 100 AD seems much more probable, but no very close date can be suggested for the date of the floor in AA area S on the grounds of the pottery under the floor.

TNK 407, V 17 (6), V 18 (2) & W17 (9) and (10), is difficult to date with confidence because little pottery was found. P10.050, a bifid nun flat pan, is a type which generally dates to the first half of the first century A.D. A fairly large piece of this pan was found in the W 17 (9), at the bottom of the tank. A sherd with a Latin graffito (P10.051) was mortared into the tank floor, evidently. It is not helpful dating material. P10.109, from V 17 (6) in the TNK 407, joins V 17 F (6), and suggests a date in the first or second century A.D. A few wall sherds of color-coated thin wall from (6) also indicate a date in the first or second century A.D. The fill of the tank is therefore certainly not earlier than mid I AD, and may be as late as 200 AD + (the date of the villa destruction).

In areas U 16 D(3), (4), E(5), U 17 D(3) and R(3) there seems to be a concentration of material of mid I AD and not later. I am not sure if this is stratigraphically meaningful.

All remaining areas of the site are evidently contemporary with villa destruction, even though the pottery is not always numerous enough to make this date obvious.

In terms of site usage, it is interesting to note that plant pots appear in W15 A (4), Q (4) and Y (4). This is well-mixed soil, with pots from II BC, the Augustan period and from I/II AD. There are joins between W15 Y (4), A (4), B (4) and Y (3). Perhaps the soil from which the plant pots were dug represents garden soil in situ. Plant pots were dug represents garden soil in situ below ground level in the gardens of Pompeii (Jashemski). The latest material in these W15 layers dates around 200 A.D., so use is contemporary with the destruction.

The area AA 13 E, layer (3), contained the remains of a very hot fire, with a number of cooking pots caught among puddle lead. Although the pieces were evidently broken before the fire, since some are not uniformly burned, the near-completeness of two casseroles, 4 lids, a small thin-walled beaker, and a flat base which was evidently used as a hot pad (or trivet), suggest that this was a working ensemble of kitchen equipment, which was caught in a very localized but intense fire during the destruction of the villa. The pieces include a classic ARS coarse wave 197 casserole and 196 lid; the heyday of the export of these types from North Africa is the late second to early third centuries A.D.

July 9, 1988


VG Site 10 1988 pottery:

W15 (1) unstrat.

ARS CW 196, 197 classic; buff pw basin rim; PP CW lid & pot base; brown glaze bowl [c with overscore] flared wall; Dr. 1 amphora handle; La. Amphora rim [insert image here]; Nafr. Amphora handle; PW amphora, vertical rim.

LII/EIII AD is late date; I BC indicated by BG and 2 amphora frags.

P10.001 – P10.002

W15 A (3) ARS tec A/C Sereran base; metallic glazed rough-cast TW; tripod bowl [c with overscore] peg foot; Compana B ws; La. 27 B or sim. Bowl rim, tsurut? Reduced; flared rim ckg ware pot as late version of Repub. ‘G4.’

EIII is late date; 1/2 I AD; LIII / EII BC.


W15 A (4) ARS tsc A 8A & 14/16; ARS CW 196 (3x):

ITS TW Haltern 7 (2x); ITS mini Haltern 15; casual red slip on eleg. Jug [c with overscore] straphandle; ESB1 ws; metallic glazed TW beaker; poculum; slipped TW dish [c with overscore] flared banded rim; cream pw beaker base & rim (TW); Repub; Tw beaker, unslipped, doubled curve profile; PP CW in many forms – Trim lid; G4 pot; G1 wm jar, Sutri 20 pot (most diag. Forms of III/II BC – II AD); msic. BG of III/II BC, incl. La 27; heavy red BG bowl base; pet. Est. base; 3 frags reduced to gritty pale green; pw sack-shaped jug-flat base, strap handle, flared rim; tiny ‘pigment’ bowl; misc. ER bases and rims; 2 plant pot bases & 1 likely rim; small peg foot of tripod dish (reduced toe); orange PW jug neck, flat gold mica incls; misc. amphora;


CW from III BC – II AD; plant pots may indicate I/II AD; no strong indicators of I BC or of 2/2I/1/2 II AD.

P10.004 – P10.019


W15 B(4) ARS 9A; ARS CW 196 (3x); 197 (burnt);

ITS Haltern 7 Wall (not as W15 A(4)); buff PW strap handles, prob. from sack-shape jugs; PW pot; twn worn bronze/brown slip ion and ex; orange pw plant pot base; heavy basin rim; rug base; PP CW S-rim lid; heavy lid knob, burnt in; bowl [c with overscore] flared wall, bead rim; Repub. TW G4 [c with over score] buff slip over banded rim; unslipped Repub. TW base & ws; misc. BG of LIII/EII BC, 1 [c with overscore] odd stamp; petites est. fabric, La. 27 form represented; rim of red slip bowl of identical fabric to base one in W15 A(4); pw sherd reduced to rough greenish ex as in W15 A(4).

LII/EIII clearly attested; Augustan ITS; BG of LIII/EII

BC. Range exactly as W15 A(4).

P10.020 – P10.022 (rim of P10.014); P10.025 W15Q(4) Campana A wall sherd of hemisph. bowl; (2x); Repub. unslipped TW CW; white buff ws [c with overscore] narrow line of black paint & 4 random dots, possibly paint in also; orange PW as plant pot base; buff pw as sack-shape jug rim; misc. cs & pw flat bases of globular pots; PP cw large ‘G4’ pot; large flange, prob. of clibanus.

PW of I/II AD; FW and CW largely of III/II BC.

P10.023 carinated

W15 Y(2) Triang. Rim of slipped pw bowl of Ostia type, rouletted wall (EIII AD); PP CW wall of WM jar; rolled amphora handle; orange cw amphora neck.

LII/EIII by carinated bowl; otherwise not datable.



W15 Y(3) ARS 9A; ARS CW 197, 196, ‘G’ rim bowl; Pompeian red wave floor; ESB1 ws; metallic glazed rough-cast TW ws; Rep. Unglazed TW WS; msic BG – TW La 27B; base [c with overscore] pet. Est., lout red/orange fabric; Campana B carinated rim, wss; Campana A ws; pyxis or epizhysis base; buff pw; PPCW s-rim lid; big G4; little G4; buff PW, 2 string cut bases, extremely sloppy, of closed pots?; open bowl, matte thick red slip in, reserved ex; form is hemisph. bowl [c with overscore] ring base of IV III BC; Dr. 2/4 handle, red orange cw; buff pw shoulder of amphora [c with overscore] wide strap handle.

II AD & LII/EIII; ½ I AD; IV-IIII/II BC – like W15 A(4) & B(4) in that only certain nodal dates are clearly represented.

Join [c with overscore] W15 B(4) in P10.025.

P10.025 – P10.029

W15 Y(4) ARS 8A, join to W15 A(4); ITS ws; rep. unslipped tw cups, 1 [c with overscore] very fine barbotine; buff pw plant pots, incl. +2 bases; (3 rd ex. In ‘brick’ fabric); pale buff pw tiny carinated bowl; sack-shaped jug; ARS cw? pot rim, rim as 197; PP cw lid (rim & knob); glob. pot; wm ckg jar; ARS cw 197 joins W15 B(4); PP CW G4 [c with overscore] flared rim; cw burnt peg leg of tripod bowl; early Repub. gritty micac. Cw bowl/basin rim; Dr. 1 amphora handle; grossly thick PW amphora [c with overscore] rolled handle; buff cw sl. micac. amphora [c with overscore] vertical neck, bead rim {koan?); flared jug rim in ‘brick’ pw fabric; hemisph. Campana A BG bowls; (1 olive-green La 27 nm); Campana C worn base; matte red/brown glaze on orange PW, banded rim; black TW CW bowl [c with overscore] T-rim; 1 BG bowl base prob. has single rosette stamp in.

Late date II & LII/EIII; 1/2 I AD; quite a bit of FW of III/II BC.

P10.030 – P10.045: more of P10.020; P10.046 is ajoin [c with overscore] W15 A(4)

W16 N(2) pieces of a mottled orange/black slipped TW beaker [c with overscore] thumb dented wall and band around mid rim – quite elegant.



W17 (2) rim & base? Of P10.047 TW; ARS CW 197/198 casserole; sack-shaped jug, mortared; POG bowl as LA 27, late?; BG worn off upper wallex.

I/II AD and ½ II BC.

Join to W16 N(2)


W17 N(2) cw lid rim, date uncertain, prob. I/II AD.

W17 N(6) PP CW s-rim lid; matte orange slip TW beaker [c with overscore] bead nm; G4 nm, large; several sherds of extr. Micac. thick brown ware as TA, but form suggests flat-bottomed large globular pot! (large lump of clay in bottom).


P 10.049

W17 TNK 407 (9) all one ‘G’ nm pan – bifid nm ARS cw or sim.



W17 TNK 407 (10) mortared pink pw, 2 lines of writing on surface ex; thin black pain.


Date uncertain.

V18 T(2) jug [c with overscore] plain vertical nm; red PW, white slip; pink ARS cw 196 nm (or sim).

LII/EIII AD. most likely.


July 11, 1988

U16 (1) PP or related brown cw lid knob. ‘Roman’, not closely datable.

(2x) U16 D(2) ARS cw BT 196 ‘classic’


U17 (1) buff pw, white slip ex, horizontal & oblique combing; burut reduced cw pad base. Combed ware is V AD +


U17 D(3) red-slipped orange TW ws; buff pw bowl rim; lid of brown sl. micac. cw [c with overscore] red over rim; mortar or lime acentions in – looks like Pompeian red ware lid.

I/II AD. 10.054.

U17 R(3) orange CW asymmetrical, pinched lid knob.


V17 (1) more of P10.047 beaker from W16 N(2); 4 pcs of pipe in typical brick fabric [c with overscore] grog; shoulder of small buff amphora; red cw heavy lid knob/wall; buff pw pa base of closed pot; reduced t brown cw/pw strap handle.

I/II AD 10.047

V17 (2) G1 nm of wm jar; horiz. and hooked; solid amphora spike toe, fabric looks red Nafr by incls, slip is gray brown, identity/provenance uncertain. Lots of pipe in 3 different fabrics, one [c with overscore] flat gold mica 10.055



V17 F(1) pipe? [c with overscore] D of 21/23 cins, same pipe end in V17 F(2) and V17(2).

V17 F(2) PP CW limit of ARS 197/198; TW slipped red orange ex & partly in form is molded or indented); tiny pale buff pw lid or base of wide glob. pot.

I/II AD P10.056 = P10.048 W17 (2)

(2x) V18 (1) another orange pipe rim; hollow spike toe of NA amphora (orange); brick fabric heavy shallow basin [c with overscore] wide curved rim; BG Campana A bowl [c with overscore] lipped rim; pet. Est. La 27B; curved TW handle as P10.047; misc. Repub. & ER PW & CW.

Late date I/II AD from G1 rim (?); other pcs which are clearly datable are III/II BC.

(2x) V18 (2) another orange pipe rim; PP CW large G1 rim. P10.057


V18 M(3) more orange pipe; ARS 23B rim to floor, heavy lime accretions. P10.058 LII/EIII AD.

V18 R(3) orange fabric ITS chip;

½ I AD.

V18 S(3) big ugly (lime acents) Dr. 1 amphora rim; tiny reduced orange lid rim, prob. Repub.

II BC – end I BC. P10.059.


X 16 (1) ARS CW 196 base; tiny spike toe of red orange CW amphora; yellow brown matte slip on plae buff pw ws.


X 16 B(3) buff pw base, chip only.


X 16 Y (1) Dr. 2/4 amphora handle, fresh breaks,

Large, solid, well-made, pink brown fabric & buff slip; pink buff pw glob. pot [c with over score] string-cut pad base


X 16 Y(2) ARS CW 197 (2x); G1 wm jar [c with overscore] hooked horiz. rim (2x); PP CW lid [c with overscore] bercled rim; shiny glazed TW beaker; matte glaze TW; crea TW beaker; flat base of closed buff pw pot (= sack-shaped jug?).


P10.060 – P10.062.

X 16 Y(3), more of G1 PP CW jar P10.062; ARS CW 197; Dr 2/4 handle frag; shiny glazed TW [c with overscore] large ‘pignola’; cream TW beaker rim; ITS (orange fabric) vertical platter rim; pw flat base of glob. pot, burned grey; Repub. pw [c with overscore] red glaze in. very smooth ex; BG Campana B sherd; pw lid [c with overscore] rim rolled on upper edge; heavy red orange [c with overscore] matte red slip, bead rim, strap handle.

P10.063 – P10.064.


X 16 Y(4) more of buff PW lid P10.063; orange PW ungreutanium toe (and flared rim?); ^4 rim; worn, poor quality ITS Haltern 7 rim [c with overscore] unreadable appliqué; buff pw flat base & sl. flared rims, perhaps of sack-shaped jugs; TW matte-slipped beakers; bifid rim cw bowl; BG pet. est. hemispherical bowl(s); closed form BG Campana B [c with overscore] small ring base.


P10.065 – P10.069.

X 17 (1) unstrat. G4 rim [c with overscore] gold mica (i.e., early).

c. III BC.

X 17 B(1) pale buff pw weather strap handle.

Prob. ER, I/II AD.

Z 16 (1) red-orange shiny glazed TW ws; weathered strap handles & pot bases; pink buff pw twisted handle; amphora stopper cut from brick fabric, .3 cm thick x 10.0 cm. D (bercled edge); BG plain rim of platter/large bowl; red black BG on ex. Of closed form; Dr. 2/4 amphora handle.

I/II AD (twisted handle, Dr. 2/4; glazed TW); III/II BC BG.


Z 16 S (1) N Afr. Red amphora. Cream slip, wide strap handle spring.

Not datable, but appropriate to site dates.

Z 16 (2) Rep. unslipped TW beaker [c with overscore] recurved rim; pink cw plain jug rim.


AA 13 (1) ARS tsc A 14/16; Pomp. Red lid pan [c with overscore] rim rolled ex; PP CW small lid [c with overscore] asymm. Knob, bercled rim; buff pw profiled base (of sack-shaped jar?); cream slipped rolled pw handle; PP CW bowl [c with overscore] thickened rim and pot [c with overscore] sloping hooked rim; BG of Roman workshop (? Chip).

P10.071 – P10.072.

Late date c. 200 AD

AA 13(2) amphora handle as LR1 amphora; ce pw profiled base; burnt to black ARS 14/16 rim; ARS 196 base? (or contemp); G1 rim, but fabric has gold mica, looks Republican; 3 coarse ware pad bases of glob. pots; a variety of cw which looks Repub. (chips); BG, incl. Worn brown glaze bowl [c with overscore] fl. Wall of I BC.

P10.073 – P10.074.


AA 13 A(2) join to cw rim P10.073 (AA 13(2));

CC PW strap handle; ARS tsc C flat chip; red cw strap handle.

EIII AD by ARS tsc A

AA 13 B(2) all above but ARS chip belong to B(2), not A(2)

EIII AD by CC strap handle.


AA 15 (1) ARS CW 196 (2x); ITS platter [c with overscore] vertical rim; CC pw pad base; glazed TW ws; Campana B BG ws; Campana A ws, mortared.


AA 17 (1) PW TW wall of unguentarium; strap handle of oheavy buff amphora, close to brick fabric; pink buff flat base of closed form, slipped white ex.

Prob. ‘Repub’; i.e. III/II/I BC.

BB 15 (1) red hard smootheed PW amphora, [c with overscore] rolled handle rising from neck, and curving down again sharply. PW flat base & strap handle.

Soft orange pw [c with overscore] red slip chipping off, perhaps ESB1.

I/II AD indicated.

July 20, 1988

AA 13 E(3) Pcs caught in the fire in the corner of villa under horreum. ARS 197, ARS 196, ARS casserole 183 variant, 2 more chips of 196, ARS casserole 183 variant, 2 more chips of 196, not burned, 3 lids, of which majority of 1 is caught in melted lead; TW CW beaker; Falt 23 base which was evid. Chipped away deliberately & used as a ‘hot pad’. Strap handle of an amphora in shattered PW & a similar handle in cw. An odd ensemble, evid. Caught in working order in a destruction fire – i.e., 2 casseroles, 4 lids, 1 TW beaker, 1 ‘hot pad’; parts of 2 amphoras (very + cw pot) (base)

P10.074 – P10.080, P10.081

Date definitely c. 200 AD.

July 22, 1988

AA 13 A(2) ARS tsc A 14/16 (c. 200 AD); PP CW lid, orange, S-rim; ce TW ws; burnt Ars tsc C 50 A rim (1/2 III AD); (3 pcs, 3 burnt black); otherwise a variety of undist. CW and PW; perhaps shoulder of Dr. 2/4 amphora.


Late date is first half III AD.

(2x) AA 13 B(2) knob and wall of lid in fabric exactly as Carthage LCW III (mid v + AD); N Afr. Amphora [c with overscore] clubbed foot; CC PW of I/II AD; handle spring of Drissel 1 amphora; Repub. CW & PW.

P10.083 – P10.085

Late date may be may be mid V AD!

AA 13 B(3) wall sherd of ARS tsc C, prob. 50 A floor; heavy bulbows spke toe of possible Africana grande red amphora; 4 rims of hooked rim G1A, reduced, battered.

Late date ½ III AD.


AA 13 C(3) 3 pcs of red FW, of which 1 is prob. ITS; others perhaps ESA; Repub. TW [c with overscore] black ex. Red in (II BC); BG common hemisph. bowl [c with overscore] red slip in; partly red ex.

Late date may be as late as mid AD, but lack of forms makes it impossible to be certain. (II BC well-attested).

AA 13 C(2) rim of burnt FW bowl, possibly ARS tsc A 8B(?). If so, c. 200 A.D.

AA 13 D(2) Big ugly orange G1 A [c with overscore] ridged rim top is only datable piece, common in destruction contexts; not before I AD.

I/II AD. P10.087

AA 13 D(3) ARS CW 23 B; ARS 8A ws; CC PW pot base.

Late date c. 200 AD, consistent.

AA 13 E(1) Africano grande rim.

Late date ½ III AD.

AA 13 E(2) ARS tsc C2wss of 50 A (?); chip of African amphora.

Late date ½ III AD. trim

AA 13 E(4) ARS tsc C base of 50 A; 27 in A/D; 196;

Massive trip. Solid bulbous spike toe; Trip. Amphora rim; misc. TW & BG of Repub. date.

Late date ½ III AD.

P10.089 – 091 -> 093

AA 16 S(3) PP CW pot, deep closed form, almost metallic shine to orange base; PW of trypical I/II AD jug form, worn to pebble; sl. flared rim of glob. pot in orange cw/pw.

I/II AD+ P10.094

AA 16 S(5) SEALED LAYER. More of same PP CW pot found in layer above (i.e., how sealed?); some Repub; strap handle & PW base [c with overscore] BG spot. The pot may be a G4; in which case Repub (but eleg. Quality is more like I/II AD).

AA 16 S(7) 4 more shards of same pot, + 2 bases of pw & 2 BG handle springs from closed form pots. Other pcs look no later than II BC.

AA 16 S(9) All III/II BC, [c with overscore] 2 possible rims for the CW pot in S(7), (5) and (3)

Hemispherical cups in Campara A & B; Greco-Italic A amphora rim; Repub. CW incl. 2 of the very earliest banded rim reps of G4; PW oral strap handle.

P10.095, P10.096, P10.097

Possibly as early as V BC?? – and as late as II BC.

BB15 (1) Pelichet 47 amphora handle; Dr. 2/4 handle chip; Tarraconensis fabric rim of amphora (?); ITS chip of Aug. -> mid I AD.

Late date I/II AD

DD 12 CUN 440(1) ESB II bowl [c with overscore] rope ridge horiz.; Dr. 2/4 rim & handle; strap handle of N Afr. Amphora; PW sack shape jug/jar; micac. amphora (not TA) flared undercut toe:

Mixed bag, not earlier than II AD is latest; earliest pce is banded PW, prob. of III/II BC..

P10.098 – P10.100; P10.101.

DD 12 CUN 440(2) Dr 2/4 rim; banded PW; CCPW; ARS CW 23; ARS tsc A ws; PP CW rim of scak-shape pot.

Similar to (1), late date c. 200 A.D(+), early date III/II BC.

P10.111 – P10.112

EE 13(1) CC PW base, prob. of large carinated bowl of E III AD; ARS tsc A 9A (II AD); eleg. Repub. TW (II BC).

Late date E III AD; II AD; early date II BC.

EE 13 CUN 440 (2) ARS tsc A 14/16 (c. 200 AD); lower wall of large CC PW bowl (EIII AD); BG?? Sherd.

Exactly as layer (1), join to layer (1).

July 23, 1988

S 14(1) Solid spike toe, local or Campanian amphora; extremely wide flat PW handle-type not seen before; ckg. Pot & PW, not distinguished.

‘Roman’ + wide handle may be a ‘medieval’ type.

S 14(2) Dr. 2/4 amphora shoulder & same ckg pot rim as found in layer (1).


S14 F(2) CW Amphora [c with overscore] steep shoulder, patchy red slip in;

CW glob ckg pot [c with overscore] flared rim; strap handle (oral section).



S 14 F(3) 2 rims of Nafr. Amphoras, types uncertain: orange CW/PW wet-smoothed ridged handle; wet-smoothed profiled orange PW pot base.

I/II AD by strap handle.

P10.103 – P10.104

S 14 F(4) ARS CW 196; Large PW amphora handle [c with overscore] 2 line stamp, raised letters: G [triangle] | [triangle] F

B O V ? O

Needs research. P10.105

Late date II AD.

U16 D(2) CW carinated wall of wm kg pot as G!; PW carinated wall.


U16 D(3) ITS hemisph. cup, plain rim; ITS bowl [c with overscore] flared rim; Repub. TW wide poculum base; PW mortared.

Cup type & G43 (?) suggest mid I AD as late certain date.


U 16 D(4) rolled PW amphora handle, ID uncertain.

Prob. II BC – II AD (!)

U 16 E(5) slipped TW wss of I AD; PP CW fl. Rim of ckg. Pot; poor quality Rome product BG of II BC.

Late certain date first half I AD.

V17 F(6) ARS CW 23B; large TW color-coated poculum [c with overscore] fat pignole; 2 sack-shaped PW jars [c with overscore] wide horiz. rims; arrow orim PP CW lid; sherd [c with overscore] blue-green pigment.

All look consistent II AD; late date LII / EIII.

P10.107 – P10.108 – P10.109

V17 TNK 407 (6) Another pce of sack-shape jar P10.109; eleg. BG base of pet. est. workshop; CC TW ws.

I/II AD + c.200 B.C.


V18 (1) possible pipe rim (?); buff soft cw vertical rim of basin (?); ARS tsc CWS.


V18 (2) ARS tsc A carinated ws as 23 base, but slipped.

II AD, prob. c. 200 AD.

(2x) W 15 A (4) BG of pet. est. workshop & Rome area brown fabric workshop: buff pw rim & base, possibly Republican.

Late certain date ½ II BC.

(2x) W 15 Q(4) BG of pet. est. & Rom earea; Repub. TW; 2 exx of G4 ckg pot; Dr. 1 handle;

Late certain date ½ IOI bC.

P10.113 – P10.114.

(2x) W15 Y(4) buff PW sack-shape jug rim.

Type of I/II AD (?).

W 17 (1) burnt Ars CW 196; buff pw jug rims; Repub. TW red Cw; vertical rim of buff amphora [c with overscore] gold mica & range of varied incls.

II AD, (& II BC).

(2x) X 16 Y(4) pock-marked BG ws; looks like pet. est. workshop.

c. 200 BG. (only 1 sherd)

Z 15 (1) ARS tsc A ws, prob 8A (?); hollow spike toe of N Afr. Red amphora; banded, vertical rim of buff pw amphora.

II AD + likely Repub. amphora.

Z 16 (1) small G4 ckg pot [c with overscor] Repub. slip treatment over rim.

Prob. before II BC. (1 sherd).

Z 16 D (1) metallic glaze red slip TW WS; shoulder of PW amphora [c with overscore] spring of rolled handle.

½ I AD.

Z 16 W (2) small TW beaker, irid. Brown glaze in. buff ex; PP CW lid [c with overscore] arrow rim.


July 13, 1988

G10/88 joins between layers:

W 17 (2) + V 17 F (2)

W 15 B (4) + W 15 Y (4)

W 15 A(4) + W 15 Y (4)

W 15 B (4) + W 15 Y (3)

W 16 N (2) + V 17 (1)

X 16 Y (2) + X 16 Y (3)

X 16 Y (3) + X 16 Y (4)

AA 13 (2) + AA 13 B(2)

V 17 F (6) + V 17 TNK 407 (6)

July 14, 1988

G10/86 layers added in 1988:

A 25 F (5) BG La 27 C rim, mottled fabric, but like Campana C; closed form BG pot [c with overscore] strap handle spring: very metallic grey-black glaze; brown CW bowl [c with overscore] T-rim; yello wbuff PW glob. pot [c with overscore] flared rim; pink buff/brown amphora strap handle, solid spike toe, buff slip, local fabric; solid pale brown porous pw amphora [c with overscore] strap handle; same fabric, white slip, Greco-Italic (?) rim; heavy extr. Coarse brown dolium rim, crowded incls.

Nothing to indicate a date later than 200 BC.

P9202 – P9204.

Y26 C(3) Burnt BG Campana A bowl chip; TW [c with overscore] brown slip in; brown glaze worn off soft yellow pw; bowl [c with overscore] flared wall & bead rim; brown CW form close to P9203 (T-rim); CW bases of Repub. type.

AA25 F(5) a large Dressel 1 amphora rim & handles in porous pink/buff fabric.


G10186 WALT FIOND: Dr. 2/4 handles, Campanian amphora fabric, white slip.

AA 24(3) its, 1 pink, 1 orange, chips; 3 chips of ometallic glaze tw poculum.

½ I AD.

G10/86 BB 18 E (18) CUN 183. ITS platter base, slipped on in only; sand marks of stacking rug; underside reserved except for finger prints: ARS CW 197, very shallow ridges in, very fine ex, perhaps early: TW FW of Repub. type + TW form [c with overscore] rim folded back on shoulder & 1 pcc [c with overscore] shiny red slip: many vessels in BG incl. Bowl in Campana C; imit? Ca. B bowl [c with overscore] flared wall; bowls [c with overscore] open carinated & hemisph. forms early & late forms, but little of good quality: buff and Ct orange PW from ‘Hylas vases’ and narrow-necked jug [c with overscore] single strap handle: 8 rims of G4 ckg pot, in a variety of sizes; 2 G4 bases; big lid knob; gruesome CFW pad base of glob pot(?); hollowed out under; thickened but narrow horiz. rims on bowls & pots; lid [c with overscore] rim sl. flared up; rolled lateral handle from CW pot; 2 pcs of CW cookg pot [c with overscore] sl. fl. Rims; lots of gold mica in fabric. Great majority of the CW is proto-PP.

P9206 – P9222

PROBLEMS DATE. The great majority seems to be of 200 BC to perhaps as late as mid I B.C., [c with overscore] a few sherds of Aug. period & 1 pce ARS CW 197, generally dated II/EIII, but perhaps earlier.

Joann Freed

July 21, 1988

Campana relief frags: Fabric description.

There are 67 frags as of 1988 (G10.78-88)

In general, the fabric is uniform. This is certainly so for the symm. satyr relief & the relief with the herm.

The fabric is fine and fired relatively soft. There are grog (crushed ceramic) inclusions in every fragmen's makeup. In about 64 of 67 cases, this is the only or major inclusion visible. These frags of grog are not small – they vary from about 1 to as much as 4/5 mm diameter. Most are between 1 and 2 mm across. Occasionally there is a little gold mica. A few frags have other inclusions, but they are not distinguished – faceted grants or rounded 'river pebbles'! Only a very few samples had clear examples of the faceted found red brown, iron nodules (hematite?; magnetite?) which are usually found in coarse wares from this area.

Grog is a common incl. in roman brick, and clay for brick is basically usually levigated, to judge by its fineness. (i.e., mixed with water, then only the finer fraction is run out of the mixing pool, leaning heavy gravel behind); the fabric of the Campana reliefs is uniformly a typical Rome-area brick fabric. The color is generally in the range 5YR 8/4 - 7/3 pink, less commonly 7.5 YR 8/4 - 7/4 pink. The grog particles generally fire to a dark brownish red. (Munsell Soil Color Charts readings).

Evidence for manufacture: drag lines on the backs of the reliefs generally run horiz., i.e., parallel to the bottom and top lines of the panel. The roughness of the drag lines may imply that the clay was smoothed into the mold [c with overscore] some force. I suggest that a prepared panel of malleable clay of the required size size may have been wet-smoothed on the surface to be molded, to bring up a fine fraction of the clay to the surface, then dropped face down into the mold & pressed into the mold [c with overscore] a dragging motion by a board-like instrument. The clay cd not have been very wet when placed in the mold, because a flat panel does not allow for any great degree of shrinkage; the shrinkage cd easily have defaced the design or even pulled the panel apart.

The geog. Provenance ofe the fabric is not certain; it is probably from the area of Rome itself, and there is no trace of typically Campanian volcanic inclusions, for instance.

There are 27 frags of the Campana relief type [c with overscore] 2 satyrs leaning over a wine bowl (counting frag from W15 (1), G10/88). (head & body of satyr on right [c with overscore] half the bowl).

1. G10/82 CC 22 A(2) typical Roman brick fabric, mostly grog incls, some very small gold mica frags.

2. G10/86 Y 25 SURF

3. G10/80 80-182 FF9 G(12)

4. G10/82 CC 22 A(2) 82-348

They were smoothed into the molds horizontally, according to drag lines on their backs.

5. G10/85 AA 22(1)

6. G10/83 CC 18(10) 83-82

7. G10/87 BB 21 E(2) 87-47

8. G10/82 DD 19 east 82 - 139

9. G10/82 DD 19 E M(3) 82-152 + (1 pink, 1 orange).

G10/85 BB 18 (1) 85-15

10. G10/85 CC 17(1) 85-1

11. G10/82 CC 14 S/B/DD 19 S E(6) 82-395

12. G10/85 X21 F 142 (3) 85-63

13. G10/82 CC 22 A(1) 82-183

14. G10/84 DD 22 (1)

15. G10/83 EE 22 C (15) 83-59

16. G10/88 W 15(1)

17. G10/85 X 23 (1) 85-9.

18. G10/87 Z 21/22 R(2) 87-54

19. G10/83 Y23 F(2) 85-166

20. G10/80 FF 9 G(2) 80-181.

21. G10/80 BB 9 G(2) 80-206

22. G10/87 Z21/22 R (3) 87-84

23. G10/84 DD 20 (1) 84-7

24. G10/84 UNSTRAT. 84-204

25. G10/84 CC 33 West (1) 84-98.

26. G10/80 X 18 (1) 80-7.

27. G10/82 CC 22 D(4) 82-360

5 frags from a frieze [c with overscore] herm (wine-pressing scene?)

1) G10/83 EE 22 C(14) 83-66 same fabric – brick fabric [c with overscore] grog incls. SYR7/3 pink.

2) G10/86 X 21 L(2) 86-46. 5YR 7/4 pink.

3) G10/85 X 21 L(3) 85-70.

4) G10/84 DD 20 O (4) 007 7.5 YR 8/4 pink

5) G10/84 DD 20 O (4) 007

6 frags of 'palm branches' :

1) G10/82 U 21 S(1) 82-42 5YR 8/3 pink.

2) G10/88 U 17(1)

3) G10/87 Z21/22 R(3) 87-78.

4) G10/85 . . . . (3) 85-69. 7.5 Y R 7/4 pink.

5) G10/82 DD 19 E(1) 138

6) G10/88 W 15 (1)

5 figured frags:

1) G10/87 Y 21 S TNK 210 87-96.

2) G10/85 X 21 (1) 85-40.

3) G10/85 BB 18 (2) 85-41.

4) G10/80 BB 9 G (3) 80-162.

5) G10/87 Y21 S TNK 210 87-95.

23 misc. frags:

1) G10/87 Z21-22 R(2) 87-82.

2) G10/85 Y23 (1) 85-152.

3) G10/82 DD 22 (1) 82-99.

4) G10/82 Z14 B(2) 82-415

5) G10/88 W 15 (1)

6) G10/86 X 21 L (2) 86-48.

7) G10/86 X 21 L (2) 86-49

8) G10/85 AA 22 C(2)

9) G10/81 EE 23 A(2)

10) G10/87 Z21/22 R (3) 87-76 (iron modules).

11) G10/85 X25 . . . 85-90 (?) a great variety of incls.

12) G10/83 W21 L(3) 83-177.

13) G10/80 BB 9 G(2) 80-226

14) G10/88 V18 (1) (antefix)?

15) G10/80 BB 9 G (5) 80-211.

16) G10/85 BB 17 (4) 85-58

17) G10/80 BB 12 (1) 80-19,

18) G10/87 Z21/22 R(2) 87-58.

19) G10/85 Y23 P(2) 85-97 greater variety of incls.

20) G10/80 BB 12 M(3) 80-55 "

21) G10/82 U21 S(1) 82-23

22) G10/87 SURF

23) G10/87 Z21/22 R(3) 87-77

Prob. from symm. satyr scene:

1) G10/88 X16 Y(3)

July 31, 1989

Box '1'

3 Boxes from 1988 not done:


W15 Y4 BG bowl [c with overscore] banded rim III/II BC.

* V16 E(2) * ITS hemisph. wp; sutri. 20 wall. I/II A.D.

V18 S(3) BG pet. est bowl rim III/II BC.

AA 14 X(3) WAL X55 PW & CW of I/II AD.

Y18 H(6) unglazed TW pot/beaker I BC/ I A.D.

BB 15 South A(1) ARS CW 196, 197 LII / EIII A.D.

* Z16 W(3) 2 complete *DD CW lids, small; CC TW; BG base: III/II BC; I/II AD

Z15 (3) ARS CW 23; peg leg, met-glazed TW; BG* lid/bowl; red/black mottled slip. LII/EIII; I AD; III/II B.C.

* CC15(1) ARS 196, 8A*, Gaulish G4 amph., TW. LII / EIII A.D.

Z15 (2) Span. Amph. h.: ARS cw 197, 196; TW; Sutri 20; paint dish; hemisph. ITS bowl. LII/EIII + I/II A.D.

V16 (1) ARS A 9A IIAD.

V16 U(2) ARS A 8A, ARS CW 196, 197; TW; buff PW LII/EIII AD.

V16 P(1) buff PW lid [c with overscore] flange under 'ER'

V18 TNK 407 (2) pipe [c with overscore] cross join??? Not datable.

Z15 (3) ARS 196, not BT, 23*B, G42, CC PW; TW PP CW: LII/EIII + I/II AD.

BB15 South (1) unstrat ARS cw 196 + mix to BG.

V16 U(2) I/II AD PW & CW + modern? Orange CW. Nothing distinctive.

W15 Q(4) Late Repub. G4 CW rim; bufdf PW. I BC or earlier.

Z 15 (1) Gaulish G4 amphora b; buff PW: I/II A.D.

W18 A(4) ITS cup [c with overscore] A rim, unid. Amphora. Mid I A.D.

BB 14 (1) ARS A; TW; buff PW; CaB WS. II A.D.; III B.C.

BB 15 South S (2) ARS CW 196 LII/EIII AD.

BB 15 South F (2) eleg BG rim of fl. Bowl I BC.

V18 D(1) ARS CW 196; ckg pot [c with overscore] fl. Bead rim. LII/EIII AD.

Z16 D(1) worn BG CaA? WS III/II BC.


V18 P(3)/P(4) ckg pot [c with overscore] wide horiz. Rim; 'G' rim pan I/II A.D.

AA 16 S 442 (2) undated cw; looks Repub. II BC. ??

AA 16 S(9) BG ws III/II BC.

V18 T(2) buff PW, combed shoulder, looks early Roman.

Box '2'

BB 15 South A(2) shoulder of Campanian amphora. Type? Hel./ER lots of TW ce, incl. jug rims*; ARS Cw 23 B; 196; ARS A 8A; CW 197, ARS 6; 3B; elg. Small slipped 23 A; little TW WS [c with overscore] blue jewels; broad-based amphora as G4 in local or NA fabric; ITS of mid I A.D.+; G4 amphora b; Dr. 1? Very clearly destr. Material of LII/EIII+ resid.

Box '3'

More BB 15 South A (2) – nothing seems to have been thrown – cw, pw, amphora, + all sherds.

Joann Freed


All text and images copyright © 2002 by Walter Widrig and Rice University. Last updated June 2005 by