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Provisional Summary of G10/86 Pottery

July 29, 1986

G 10-86 Observations

The 1986 season was distinguished by the find of much more Hellenistic pottery than we've had earlier. Although several examples of Lamboglia 27 B in the distinctive petites estampilles fabric were excavated, larger bowls in, probably, "Campana B" with larger stamps, were more common finds in the source of most of the Hellenistic pottery, that is bedrock cut 189 ( cf. P9144, P9168, P9169, P9170). A date in the 3rd c. B.C. is very likely.

Several black glaze types occur which have not been seen here before, for instance a large bowl with a curved rolled lateral handle which forms a double loop (P9174); P9146 (an elegant base of a columnar closed form with black glaze irregularly dripped down exterior wall (P9146), a stemmed open bowl with a pattern of black glaze lines and dots in the floor (P9195). Possible comparanda for this last are small serving bowls seen at the Villa Giulia in Etruscan tomb contexts of mixed 7 to 3 B.C. date. All these pieces need more research before they can be identified adequately.

Another unprecedented piece is a handle of a Rhodian amphora. These Hellenistic amphoras carried stamps on each handle, one naming the fabricant, and the other the eponymous official whose name identifies the year. Our name, Agathoboulos, is listed as a fabricant active sometime before 200 B.C., whose name is associated with at least 8 eponymous officials (P9153). Again, more research remains to be done to date this piece.

Among the finds of "Augustan" date, two were particularly interesting. One is a brick stamp of a M. TULL(ius) M. L(ibertus) SAL(aria) (86-44). A single line rectangular brick stamp with what I have interpreted as a brick factory provenance on the Via Salaria should belong to the first half of the first century A.D. This name does not seem to occur in CIL XV, 1, where Roman brick stamps can generally be identified. The name is the same as that of Cicero ( M. Tullius Cicero), but it is unlikely in the extreme that the stamp really refers to a freedman of his, since he was dead fifty to 100 years before the likely date of this brick.

Another interesting find was an Italian terra sigillata cup with a two-line stamp in its floor which is too minute to be read with the naked eye. Under a 6-power lens, I read “philoi/puri”; this however may be a mistaken interpretation of the following ligatured stamp:

Very early ITS may have such “drinking mottoes,” which appeared commonly on eastern sigillatas, which ITS imitated.

A complete brick tile with a complete circular/lunate stamp with medium orb was found with a very legible 3-line inscription (86-65). The inscription appears in CIL XV, 1, 375 and reads “L(ucius) Bruttidi(us) Aug[ustal] is made this brick at the potteries of our Caesar [Hadrian is intended] in the consulship of Prop(inqvus) and Ambi(bulus) [126 A.D.].

Another fragmentary tile (86-43) was identified as CIL XV, 1, 635 c, a lunate stamp of L(ucius) Licinius [Felix] at the potteries named “Tonneiana." This particular stamp is dated by Dressel to the end of the first century A.D.

Although much less material of destruction context and date was dug than usual this year, there was an interesting find of two amphoras of Pélichet 47 form (P9100, P9084). Although the form is generally associated with destruction contexts on Site 10, the Gaulish fabric versions are believed to be imported already in the first century A.D. However, copies in African red coarse ware are said by Tina Panella to date no earlier than the beginning of the third century A.D. Although our amphoras look identical at a glance, closer examination shows that P9100 is Gaulish; P9084 is North African, and the second is ∴ certainly contemporary with the generally indicated date for the end of the site.

July 26, 1986

Excavation Analysis by Pottery G 10/86:

(Order of discussion from W --> EE.) (N --> S; W --> E)

Area W:

In area W 20 a brick tile with a consular date ( A.D.) in the reign of Septimius Severus was found with an unidentifiable CW amphora.

Area X:

In area X 21 only area V may possibly have material laid down earlier than destruction (late 2/early 3 A.D.); area V (5) material is contemporary with destruction. V (6) is certainly post-Augustan. V (8) can not be dated because the material is unidentified and too scanty.

In area X 23 only V (8) material is of interest. A date in the first half of 1 A.D. is attested.

--> Three brick stamps were found in X 21 L (2). They do not have consular dates, and vary very widely in date by type: 1st ½ 1 A.D. (86-45); end 1/early 2 A.D. (86-43); 2nd ½ 2 A.D. (86-44).

The brick stamps could be interpreted to suggest 3 phases of construction in the area.

X 21 V = X 21 P

Analysis: G10/86

Area Y:

By far the most extensive pottery finds in 1986 come from area Y, in particular Y 23 V BRC 189.

In area Y 21, layers (1) and (2) consistently date to the late second and early third centuries A.D. A v ariety of not very clearly identifiable amphoras were found in this context; forms/types include a Gaulish Pélichet 47; Dressel 2/4; a small African container with “star” handle; Dressel 20 (?) shards; & several unidentifiable cylindrical amphoras, one in a North African fabric.

A brick stamp with a consular date ( ), probably of the mid-second century A.D. by type, (86-7) was found in Y 21 (1).

In area Y 21 S, layers (2) and (4), (6) TNK 210 and (6) TNK 214 material is all contemporary with destruction (late 2/early 3 A.D.), layers S (8) and S (8) TNK 214 are not as clearly characterized by datable pieces, but may well be contemporary.

In contrast, Y 21 S (13) and (14) suggest a date in the late Republican/Augustan period.

Area Y 21 U is contemporary with destruction (late 2/early 3 A.D.) in layers (1), (2) and (4). The sealed material under the mosaic (U (7)) is scanty; P9118 and P9119 from this layer are a coarse ware lid and black glaze bowl (base). The bowl is generally dated to the second century B.C., the lid is not typical of first and second century A.D. contexts and may also be of Republican date. (This material is certainly too early to provide a trustworthy date for the floor.)

In area Y 21 V, only layer (4) is not clearly contemporary with destruction. Here the latest attested material is of the first half of the first century A.D.

Within area Y 23, material was returned from areas D, G, P, S, V and W. The material from this area is anomalous in that material dated contemporary with destruction (late 2/early 3 A.D.) was returned only from Y 23 G (4) and P (4), and from no other designation.


Y 23 D (1) and (2) date generally to the first and second centuries A.D.; D (4) is not securely dated & may be contemporary or slightly earlier.

Y 23 “SURF” layers do not contain material of date later than mid 1 A.D.

Analysis G10/86 July 26, 1986

In area Y 23 P, material of destruction date occurs in layer (4). All the remaining material excavated suggests a late date with mid 1 A.D. Several additional shards of modiolus P4096, excavated in V 23 N (2) in 1981, were found in Y 23 P (5) [also in X 21 V (5), G 10/86]. All layers (P (4), P (5), P (6), P (6) F 202, P 14 IMP 205 and P (15)) also include material of the second century B.C.

Y 23 S (2) WAL 129 (Baulk) is represented by a pot which suggests the first century A.D. only.

Y 23 V seems to be equivalent to F 189 = bedrock cut 189. Material with this designation was returned from surface and layers (6), (8), (9), (10), (11), and (15) and from contexts designated BRC 189 A (11) and C (11); A (15), B (15), C (15) and C (16). Material from this area is still being excavated.

Material from SURF, (6) and (8) is not later than the first half of 1 A.D., and may be Augustan. Layer (9) has no material later than mid 2 B.C., layer (10) suggests nothing later than 1st ½ 1 B.C. Layer (11) (no area designation) is dated by a poor quality BG bowl with flared wall to perhaps as late as the middle of the first c. B.C.

Layer (15) (no area designation) is not as clearly dated, but the coarse wares are of Republican type.

Analysis G10/86 July 26, 1986

Within designated areas of BRC 189, BRC 189 A (11) and (15) both have material of early 1st c. A.D. date. A rouletted wall shard of a third century A.D. color-coated plain ware carinated bowl in (15) is probably intrusive – it is completely out of character for the entire area.

BRC 189 B (15) material is covered with an unpleasant brown-black mineral deposit which is only so mewhat responsive to a dilute solution of hydrochloric acid. Black glaze hemispherical bowls and platters of Lamboglia 5/7 indicate the mid and late second century B.C. (& possibly earlier). Unidentified coarse ware cylindrical amphoras with solid pointed toes are fairly common. Coarse wares are of Republican types (G 4 pot), (peg leg of tripod bowl), but “G” proto-ARS bowl with bifid rim suggests an Augustan late date. This câche of Republican pottery in large shards is unusual among excavated pottery on the G 10 site.

The material in BRC C (11), (15) and (16) is essentially identical to that in BRC B (15) by fo rms, co ncen tration (at least 90%) of l arge pieces of e arly material and with the identical min eral deposits.

In area C (BRC C) there is a possible distinction in the date of the material. Layers (15) and (16) are largely material of late 3/early 2 B.C., while (11) is largely material of late 2 --> early 1 B.C.

In area Y 23 V BRC 189 C (15), there is a problem because of the uncertain date of beakers in very thin-walled (1 mm) unslipped fabric which have rouletted decoration. Moers believes rouletting does not appear before the 1st half of 1 A.D. at Cosa, in which case the presence of this type wd suggest that the bedrock cut was at least disturbed at that date. I am not convinced that her dating is correct, since the general type, without rouletting, already appears in contexts of 2 B.C. Our evidence is not clear, however.

Y 23 V (11) CUN 212 material contains post-Augustan material of 1st ½ 1 A.D. and has a join to Y 23 V BRC 189 A (11); in short, cuniculus 212 and bedrock cut 189 A were certainly disturbed/filled contemporaneously.

(They are the same; Devon, July 28, 1986.)

A bit of material was returned from Y 23 W (5) including a good example of BG Lamboglia 27 B hemispherical bowl of the 2nd ½ of the 3rd c. B.C.

In area Y 25, characterization and dating of layers is relatively difficult. Material certainly contemporary with the destruction of the site (late 2/early 3 A.D.) is not certainly present in layers (1), (2) or North (1). Clearly identified material of this date does appear in Y 25 D (2) and Y 25 North B (2).

Material of early imperial date (1 & 2 A.D.) is present in Y 25 (2), B (2), D (3), and North C (2). Area Y 25 C (3) is dated only by a BG Campana A cup base of 3/2 B.C. Obviously, the material is too scanty to give great confidence in the dates which can be suggested.

Y 26 (1) has scanty material and the late attested date is the second century B.C., again not likely to be relevant.

Area Z:

Material of destruction date is very clearly attested in Z 24 and Z 25, particularly in Z 24 (1) and (3), Z 25 (1), (2) and B (4) and Z 25 E (4), (5) and (7). A number of pcs in these layers suggest a date not earlier than c. 200 A.D.: a North African Africano grande amphora rim (Z 25 (1)); ARS Form 27 (Z 25 (1)); ARS Form 14 (Z 25 (2); ARS Form 27 (Z 25 B (4)).

"Plant pots" appear in Z 25 E (5) and (7), which may suggest that the area was a storage area for viticulture.

In Z 24 A (3) and in Z 25 C (4) and (5) the material can only be dated generally, to the early Empire (1/2 A.D.). Z 24 (2) and H (3) both produced scanty material of the second century B.C. and nothing later; scattered finds of second century B.C. material in other Z 24 and Z 25 contexts suggests some activity in the area at that date. Z 24 F (3) material also looks Republican rather than later.

Area Z was clearly actively used in the second century A.D. and from the pottery, should be interpreted as working/storage area related to the industrial function of the site at that period.

Area AA:

Area AA 24 A (3) is the only designation from which material was returned. Material of late 2/early 3 A.D. appears mixed with material of 1 A.D. and 3/2 B.C.

Area BB:

BB 16 F SURF produced material characteristic of 1/2 A.D.

BB 18 AC SURF produced ARS CW 196, a type definitely characteristic of late 2/early 3 A.D., and of Site 10 destruction contexts.

BB 18 and BB 20 E are both from the area inside the colonnade of the peristyle. I will combine the information from the two areas after working through each independently.

BB 18 E SURF and (2) (material from the baulk) include material of destruction date. Layers (12), (13), (14) and (18) are all tagged CUN 183. (One bag of (14) without the designation had a join to another with the designation.) Joins between (18) and (13); and (12) and (14) strongly indicate that all this material belongs together without distinction. The material in these layers is consistently dated to the 1st ½ of the first century A.D. + a smallish % of pcs. of 2/1 B.C.

BB 18 E (16) DRN 100 is characterized by material of the first century B.C. with a late date at the end of the century.

BB 18 E 17 (baulk) produced an example of BG Campana C platter Lamboglia 5/7, which joins G 10/85 BB 18 E (5) and G 10/86 BB 20 E (7). The date of the piece is c. 100 B.C.

In BB 20 area E, all layers date to the destruction of the site (E (1), (2); (3); (4); (7); (17)). Evidently only the presence of the cuniculus and drain in BB 18 E is responsible for the earlier date of the pottery collected there.

A mystery layer labelled BB 20 J (11) (sealed layer) was returned. All the material except the rouletted very elegant unslipped TW suggests a date c. 100 B.C., which I think may be the date of the rouletted types as well; Moers suggests a date in the first half of the first century A.D. for

--> rouletting, however. (Devon says J = X.) (This layer seems to be a bit of peristyle colonnade floor??)

Material from the surface of BB 22 is dated late 2/early 3 A.D.

Only a small dolium/jar, undatable, came from the surface of BB 26.

Area CC:

In Area CC 16, surface material dates to the destruction of the site, as does material from area C (8). In layers (10) and (14), the latest attested date is the first half of 1 A.D., layers (11) and (13) are not as clearly dated, but are generally consistent.

Material from CC 16 W (12) dates to the second century A.D.; material from CC 16 V (13) is not datable.

In area CC 17, layers C (8) and (9) both have material of 1 A.D., possibly from the first half. (COIN 86-58 (CC 16 DOR 134 (20)) dates 140-143 A.D.)

Area DD:

Layer DD 15 A (3) returned a good deal of pottery. Material of destruction date is well attested, but the majority is concentrated in the first half of 1 A.D.

Probably all material from DD 16 K was laid down contemporary with destruction (late 2/early 3 A.D.), since this date is clearly attested for DD 16 K DRN, and (101).

101 = “that hole” Jim, July 28, 1986

“a layer underneath bedrock”

DRN = WAL 145 --> DRN 145

Area EE:

Material from EE 16 consistently dates to the early first century A.D. A single-line rectangular brick stamp of a Marcus Tullius who is a freedman of Marcus and whose establishment is on the Via Salaria came up among surface finds here (M ∘ TVL ⊦ ML · SAL). There is consistency among material from surface to K (8) in this area.

In area EE 26 (1) and (2), the material is certainly not earlier than 1 A.D. Unstratified material from EE 27 includes material from no earlier than mid 2 A.D.

July 22, 86

1986 layers: [LIST]

AA 16 Surface brown smoothed CW, mica glints, lid with rim rolled up, date uncertain.

BB layers:

BB 18 E (18) CUN 183 jug, PW.

BB 18 E BRC 183 (12)

BB 18 E (14)

BB 18 E (2) (baulk between BB 18 and BB 20).

BB 18 E (14) CUN 183

BB 18 E (14) “ “

BB 18 E (13) CUN 183

BB 26 Surface.

BB 18 E (17) (baulk between BB 18 & BB 21).

BB 20 E (3)

BB 20 E (4)

BB 18 P Surface

BB 18 AC Surface

BB 18 E (16) DRN 100

BB 20 (1)

BB 20 E (17)

BB 22 Surface.

BB 18 E (17)

BB 18 E Surface.

BB 20 E (7)

BB 18 E (18) CUN 183

BB 20 E (3)

BB 16 F Surface.

BB 20 J (11)

BB 20 E (2)

July 22, 86 JF

1986: G 10/86 Dating of Pottery in Layers

BB 18 AC Surface: ARS CW 196 lid rim

--> end 2/early 3 A.D.

BB 18 E Surface: ARS CW 183 with wedge rim; TW orange CW; nondescript BG of 1 B.C.

--> end 2/early 3 A.D. is late date.

BB 18 E (2) (baulk) mortarium, same vessel as BB 18 E (7) P8172 from 1985; carinated CC PW bowl.

--> end 2/ early 3 A.D.

BB 18 E (12) BRC 183: CW of 1/2 A.D. types; PW also, but nothing necessarily later than

--> 1 A.D.

BB 18 E (13) CUN 183: Several pcs of exactly the same fabric and type as jug in BB 18 E (18) CUN 183 (P9 );

--> latest certain date mid 1 B.C. (BG, small, not TW, CW beakers; clibanus (2x); heavy orange CW bowls.

BB 18 E (14) CUN 183: another 2 pces of P9002 in same grid square, CUN (2x) 183 (12); ITS of mid 1 A.D. (10 frags):

BG of 3/2 B.C. (hemisph. bowls, poor quality): PW includes small version of ER jug 1; G 11 pot shape 4 in PW (!): small pot with wide horiz rim, constr. neck (!): Augustan (?) lamp: TW includes metallic glaze rough-cast; and CC TW; G 4 shape occurs several times; peg leg of bowl; PP CW fabric occurs several times; ARS CW "G" bowl with bifid rim, Dressel 2/4 amphora handle in orange PW/CW with mica glints.

Latest date certainly attested is mid 1 A.D.; ARS CW bowl probably not later.

BB 18 E (14) (no feature) = joins with CUN 183 (14) above.

join to BB 18 E (13) CUN 183

--> Date as (14) CUN 183

BB 18 E (18) CUN 183 ITS of Tiberian (circa) date: BG incls evident Campana C, NA amphora with narrow flared rim; early PR dish with bead rim; early CW forms; bizarre “inkpot”; hollow amphora toe; broken small dolium rim (?), rough cast TW.

--> Latest certain date in 1st ½ 1 A.D.

BB 18 E (16) DRN 100 TW 1 mm thick; Campana C BG; Campana BG, poor quality; red Cl dish, perhaps an imit. of ITS

--> Late date end 1 B.C., possibly earlier.

Lamboglia 5/7 in Campana C.

BB 18 E (17) join to G 10/85, P8168: P8167 is same bowl.

--> late 2/early 1 B.C.

BB 18 E (17) baulk between BB 18 and BB 21.

PP CW orange jug? rim.

--> date uncertain.

BB 16 F SURFACE. strap handle of amphora, CC PW, TW.

--> 1/2 A.D. [Heavy lime veining]

BB 18 P SURFACE ITS cup with triangular rim.

--> 1st ½ 1 A.D.

BB 20 (1) ARS CW 196 (2x); CW peg leg of bowl; small version of Dr. 2/4 handle; large amphora, bead rim, heavy strap handle.

--> Late 2/early 3 A.D.

BB 20 E (2) ARS tsc A 8/9 base; 3 B (no barbotine) rim; ARS CW pot of unclassif. type; burnt micaceous FW base.

--> 2 A.D. late attested date.

BB 20 E (3) Rather poor slip on ARS tsc A Form 3B rim and base of late 2 A.D. type; 3 chips ITS; ARS CW 197 mini and reg; Cl PW jug with narrow horiz. rim, version of ER jug 1 with narrow banded rim; amphora with n arrow flat base.

--> Late 2/early 3 A.D.

BB 20 E (4) CC PW bowl with Δ rim, carinated wall; odd rim for ARS 196; jug/amphora rim, beveled, as “star” amphora?; PW chip of twisted handle; another pce of burnt micac. fine ware base; early ITS bowl with unusual profile to ring base. Orange PW neck of l arge jug, red slip in.

--> Late 2/early 3 A.D.

BB20 E (7) more of Campana C bowl P8167/P8168 CC PW WS.

--> Late 2/early 3 for ws.

BB 20 E (17): angular ARS CW 197, mortared into wall or floor; incredible bulbous jug rim; join to P9032, BB 18 E (17), white LG cup with handle spring;

late 2/early 3 A.D.

BB 20 J (11) (sealed layer): Moers' wd date the slashed decoration on TW P9046 to Tiberius, but I suspect this pce is much earlier. The La 5/7 dish, and the other super TW suggest a date

--> c. 100 B.C. or 1st ½ 1 B.C. to me. Is there any possibility the layer cd be this early??

BB 22 Surface: ARS CW 196, ITS with gravel on floor from stacking; ER jug 1 in PW; rather thick TW with metallic glaze in and ex.

--> late 2/early 3 A.D.

BB 26 Surface: Small version of dolium in brick fabric.

CC 16 Surface: ARS CW 196; BG with fl. rim of 1 B.C. type.

CC 16 C Surface – CW & PW wss.

CC 16 C (8): CC PW. CW lid with Δ rim.

1 and 2 A.D.

CC 16 C (10) TW CW with rouletting; pale buff PW jugs; Dr. 2/4 amphora handle (lt orange PW); CC TW with immensely narrow pignole.

--> 1st ½ 1 A.D. latest attested date.

CC 16 C (11) an unidentifiable pot which looks like burnt ARS CW in a Form 26 with no slip.

--> Date uncertain, does not look earlier than 2 A.D., but in fact is not identifiable.

CC 16 C (13) Delicate PW/CW Dressel 2/4 amphora handles.

--> 1 B.C. – early 3 A.D. possible!!!

CC 16 C (14) ITS base; PW base.

--> Probably early 1 A.D., not much earlier or later.

CC 16 W (12) ARS tsc A Form 8A; Small? Dressel 2/4 amphora; basin with heavy knobbed rim.

--> end 2/early 3 A.D.

CC 16 V (13) heavy amphora solid toe, CW; closed glob. pot base.

--> Date uncertain.

CC 17 C (8) red fabric, matte black slip strap handle; ITS chip; TW CC beaker with rim folded back.

--> 1st ½ 1 A.D.

CC 17 C (9): ITS incl. base with double line rectang. stamp

the type is certainly early.

Rouletted PW wall shard.

--> Attested date 1st ½ 1 A.D.

DD 15 A (3) BG bowl with flared wall (1st ½ 1 B.C.): Pélichet 47 handle; ITS Haltern 1; ITS Haltern 2 with extr. elegant garland; CW PP globular pot with vertical neck, sl. horiz. rim; ESB2 base shard with rouletting; LG on PW; ITS with ½ of rectangular stamp; PW pot with CW glob pot shape as above; CW pot with curved down horiz. rim, hooked at edge; ARS CW 196

--> Late 2/early 3 A.D. latest attested date; most evidence concentrated in 1st ½ 1 A.D.

DD 16 K Unstrat. base probably of ESB1 form.

1/2 A.D.

DD 16 K (10) lt. brown PW pot with heavy ring base.

1/2 A.D.

DD 16 K DRN ARS CW 196 and classic 182 lid; great PW large cup imit. TW; interesting CW pot.

--> Definitely late 2/early 3 A.D.

DD 16 K (101) ARS tsc A 8B; overcooked Pélichet 47 rim, CW Gl A rim.

--> Definitely late 2/early 3 A.D.

EE 16 Surface – heavy PW amphora with bead rim, rolled handle; ITS frags; Gl A rim; PW jug rim; Campanian amphora small bead rim – Dressel 2/4.

--> Early 1 A.D.

EE 16 5-7 Dressel 2/4; 2nd in Campanian fabric; Gl A rim; lots of ITS frags with many of same pcs as are in the next context (K (8)).

--> Early 1 A.D.

EE 16 K (8) Extremely broken up ITS shards incl. a goblet of not very fine quality; Dressel 7/11 amphora; Dressel 2/4 amphora; amphora with handle decreasing down; amphora with horned handles; NA strap handle of amphora; PW jug slipped red ex; TW; hellenistic banded ware; spout slipped red ex;

--> Early 1 A.D.

EE 26 (1) Tarraconensis amphora rim, ITS rim of bowl with fl. wall; PP CW lid rim.

1 A.D.

EE 26 (2) horned handle of amphora; ITS chips; PW lid & pot rim, Dressel 2/4 handle; ESB rim.

--> 1 A.D. (possibly 2)

EE 27 UNSTRAT: ARS tsc A 9A; Dressel 2/4 handle; ESB2 rim

--> 2 A.D.

W 20 Surface: CW amphora

--> Date uncertain.

X 21 Surface: BG bowl, ITS ws; PW glob pot rim; CW glob pot.

--> Late attested date 1/2 A.D.

X 21 (1) Baulk between X 21 & Y 21.

heavy ARS tsc A 8A; Pélichet 47 base; ws as Pelichet 47 amphora in NA fabric.

--> End 2/early 3 A.D.

X 21 L (2) ARS CW 196; LG, white surfaces; “Rhodian” white amphora rim; solid toe orange Campanian? amphora; hollow button bases & bases as Pél 47; PP CW lid knob & upper wall; PW ws with trail of brown paint as ??

--> Late 2/early 3 A.D.

X 21 U backfill: BG, PW with choc. interior, black CW rim.

--> XXX (Date meaningless)

X 21 V (5) ARS 196; PP CW lid rim, plain; chip of ITS “modiolus”; PW & TW.

--> Late date late 2/early 3 A.D.

X 21 V (6) CW – 2 lid rims & pot with Δ rim; very thin Repub. TW.

--> 1/2 A.D.

X 21 V (8) Bead rim CW amphora in NA fabric.

--> ? Date uncertain.

X 23 backfill: ITS chips, CC very TW; PP CW lid with upsquared rim; CW glob. pot.

--> XXX (Date meaningless).

X 23 Surface: ITS chips incl. rim of hemisph. bowl.

X 23 V (8) PP CW lid with plain rim; metallic glaze TW beaker.

--> 1st ½ 1 A.D. attested.

(2 A.D.) (1 B.C.)

“Walt"s Wanderings” ARS 8 A, TW with vertical rope dec; PP CW ckg pot with dropped wide rim.

XXX – date meaningless.

X 24 (1) Baulk. Pélichet 47 amphora form in NA fabric, join to X 21 (1) baulk.

--> Early 3 A.D.

Z 24 (1) ARS tsc A 8 B; 8 A; 23; 196; Dr. 2/4 handles and rim.

--> Late 2/early 3 A.D.

Z 24 (2) BG ws from closed form, graffito X.

--> Attested date 2 B.C.

Z 24 (3) ARS 23 B; 197; 196; PP CW in various forms; ARS imit. with PP CW incls – G rim bowl.

--> Late 2/early 3 A.D.

Z 24 H (3) reduced G 4/9 pot.

--> Attested date 2 B.C.

Z 25 (1) ARS 196; 23 B; Tarraconensis Dressel 2/4 imitation; NA Africano grande; ARS tsc A 27; PP CW, Sutri, sack-shape form; large Pel. 47 Gaulish base.

Late 2/early 3 A.D.

Z 25 (2) Dressel 1 rim; complete lid in PP CW; ARS tsc A Form 14; widely flared late Lamboglia 27, Gl A.

--> Late 2/early 3 A.D. + 2 B.C.

Z 25 B (4) Form 27 rim, ARS tsc A.

--> Late 2/early 3 A.D.

Z 25 C (4) BG closed form ws, graffito V; (not as pce in Z 24 (2)) micac. orange fabric, red orange slip worn off. PW TW strap handle.

1 A.D. attested.

Z 25 C (5) PP CW lid rim, uncertain amphora.

1/2 A.D.

Z 25 E (4) 2nd pce of Dressel 1 amphora in Z 25 (2) ARS 196 and 23; ESB2 rim; BG base of pet. est. type.

Late 2/early 3 A.D. + 3/2 B.C.

Z 25 E (5) several PW plant pots; white PW with red pigment in; CC PW; ITS frag; ARS 196 rim, (strap handles).

Late 2/early 3 A.D. (storage rooms for vineyards?).

Z 25 E (7) more plant pot rim; Dr. 2/4 handles; red slip or orange CW; BG bowl base.

Late 2/early 3 A.D. + 3/2 B.C.

Y 21 (1) Gaulish Pél 47 amphora; 9 A ARS; Dressel 2/4 amphora; ARS 196; CC PW.

see note Late 2/early 3 A.D., consistent.

p. 10 on

amphoras Y 21 (2) ARS CW 196 rims & base; ARS tsc A Form 6; tiny metallic glaze TW beaker; deliberately cut amphora stopper rounds; “star” amphora handle; pink fine PW, worn off red slip, broken dolium rim; Pélichet 47 amphora in Gaulish fabric.

Late 2/early 3 A.D., consistent.

Y 21 S (2) TW joins to P9099; ARS 196, 8/9 base; CC PW bowl with carinated wall dolium base, solid toe of Campanian (?) amphora:

--> Late 2/early 3 A.D.

Y 21 S (3) Baulk between Y 21 and Y 23.

TW roughcast beaker with flared rim; PW strap handle; sl. metallic glaze on TW.

--> 1st ½ 1 A.D. attested.

Y 21 S (4) Join to P 9101, CC PW carinated bowl.

Intrusive? yellow glaze, surely modern shard.

PP CW; ARS 197, TW Repub. unslipped.

--> Late 2/early 3 A.D. + modern.

Y 21 S (6) TNK 210 ARS CW 197; lid with asymm. knob.

Late 2/early 3 A.D.

Y 21 S (6) TNK 214, another join to P9101; ARS 197; ITS with rouletted floor; Campanian Dressel 2/4 amphora.

end 2/early 3 A.D.

Y 21 S (8) CW with gold mica pyrite; very nicely cut amphora stopper

1/2 A.D.

Y 21 S (8) TNK 214 PP CW complete lid with asymm. knob: Campanian CW lid with asymm. knob.

1/2 A.D.

Y 21 S (13) ITS, late date cd be as late as mid 1; dark red brown slip on BG form; extr. fine TW with no slip; jug with fl. rim; unguentarium wall; various coarse wares;

In general 1 B.C. better represented than 1 A.D., perhaps late Augustan??

Y 21 S (14) PW jug, single strap handle; G 4/9 pot; extr. fine unslipped TW rim.

PW suggests:

1/2 A.D.

Y 21 V (1) PW/CW handle.

Not datable.

Y 21 V (2) ARS 196, Form 6; 3 exx. of PW amphora stopper cut rounds; pale buff strap handle.

Late 2/early 3 A.D.

Y 21 V (3) ARS 196 base; TW with pignola; unguentarium rim; BG of late 3/early 2 B.C.; PW of 1/2 A.D.

Late 2/early 3 A.D. + mix of earlier date.

Y 21 V (3) baulk between Y 21 & Y 23. ARS CW 196; CW base of baking dish in Vesuvius fabric; TW with mottled brown slip.

Late 2/early 3 A.D.

Y 21 U (1) ARS FW 8 A ws; Dresssel 2/4 amphora handle.

Late 2/early 3 A.D. (2, anyway).

Y 21 U (2) ARS 196 CW; Dr. 2/4 handle; pale buff PW base ring; ITS base; brown glaze BG.

Late 2/early 3 A.D.

Y 21 U (4) ARS CW 196; TW with eleg. black metallic glaze in; pot or jug in CW with fl. sq. rim.

--> Late 2/early 3 A.D.

Y 21 U (7) sealed layer (under mosaic): coarse ware has incls of PP; (but 1 pce of gold pyrite); BG bowl with reserved base.

BG is 3/2 B.C.: CW lid is of uncertain date, but could be 1st c. A.D. +.

--> Y 21 V (4): ITS base with rouletted zone in floor: TW slipped matte red in.

1st ½ 1 A.D. attested.

July 23, 1986

G 10/ 1986 Pottery:

Y 21 (1) & (2) amphoras: base of ovoid amphora in smoothed fairly coarse fabric which looks local but is sl. micaceous; shards from 6 amphoras in addition:

1. N.A. fairly small cylindrical amphora, vertical smoothing.

2. smoothed brown CW amphora, evid. cylindrical body.

3. heavy cylindrical orange CW amphora, smoothed buff ex. (1 large shard)

4. probably ovoid amphora, fabric similar to 3, but sl. finer.

5. extremely thick gritty buff CW amphora, form uncertain, wall slanted but not globular.

6. Extremely thick ugly buff fabric, many shards, definitely globular, casually obliquely smoothed ex, probably Dr. 20.

-->Context late 2/early 3 A.D.

Y 23 Surface: Closed form BG; poor quality brown glaze BG; CC TW; unslipped TW, Repub.; TW CW beaker; PP CW, Sutri sack shape

2 - 1 B.C. + likely 1 A.D. CW.

Y 23 Wal 129 Surf: worn closed BG: PP CW TW lid; CW glob. pot waster.

2/1 B.C. + likely 1 A.D. CW.

Y 23 F 189 Surf: ITS Haltern 8 or 7 cup shard.

Augustan date.

Y 23 F 189 (6): ITS platter base; rouletted zone in floor, reserved under floor.

Augustan date.

Y 23 D (1) G 11 Form Gl A

1/2 A.D.

Y 23 D (3) PP CW glob. pot with dropped rim; pale buff CW amphora rim.

1/2 A.D.

Y 23 D (4) Pale PW with red brown thin slip in & worn off ex.

Can't be dated, but is “Roman.”

say 1 B.C. – 1 A.D.

Y 23 S (2) WAL 129 Baulk between Y21 & Y 23:

PW glob pot with restr. pad base.

1 A.D. most likely.

Y 23 W (5): Lamboglia 27 B BG rim, brown glaze, chipped off on lower wall ex.

--> mid --> end 3 B.C.

Y 23 G (4): ARS tsc A Form 14; ITS chip.

--> 2 A.D.

Y 23 P Surface: PP CW base

1/2 A.D.

Y 23 P (4): waster as P9122, Y 23 WAL 129, SURF; twc version of Hayes 181; rouletted unslipped very thin TW; ER jug 1 in PW; PW with thin streak of paint; TW with horiz. brown buffed surface; knob of lid, string cut & high; BG Campana B shard.

Late 2/early 3 A.D. + 2/1 B.C.

Y 23 P (5): more pcs of modius with grapes (P4096): BG Lamboglia 27 B, TW incl. metallic glaze.

Late date probably mid 1 A.D.

Y 23 P (6) G 43 ITS bowl rims; (!); PW jug with single handle spring; BG bowl with rolled rim; PP CW Gl A, G 4/9; Sutri sack shape

Latest attested date mid 1 A.D.; early date 2 B.C.

Y 23 P (14) IMP 205: ITS platter base, i.p.p. stamp C. CL. PR Gaius Claudius Pr . . . (Princeps?, Primus?)

Fabric reminds me of modius in related areas.

Mid 1 A.D.

Y 23 P (15) CW Gl A pot; brown version of LA 27 BG bowl; slipped Hellenistic PW.

Probably at least 1 A.D. for Gl A form.

Y 23 P (6) F 202: PP CW bowl with bead rim; BG bowl with bead rim.

1st ½ 2 B.C. late c ertain date, PP CW prob. not before 1 A.D.

V 23 F 189 V Surface: roughcast TW.

1st ½ 1 A.D.

V 23 V (8) F 189 Dr. 2/4 amphora handle, Campanian fabric; beautifully cut amphora stopper; lid rim

Augustan to end 1 A.D. most probable.

V 23 V (9) F 189/BRC 189: BG base; unslipped Repub. TW; ridged heavy strap handle; PW amph with pale buff slip.

Late certain date mid 2 B.C.

Y 23 (10) F 189 = BRC 189: Dressel 2/4 amphora, Campanian fabric; BG, no form, suggests 3/2 B.C.; TW beaker in Repub. very TW unslipped; PW jug rim chip; PP CW attested

--> 1st ½ 1 B.C. is likely latest date, but earlier date is possible, depending on earliest date off PP CW, & Campanian amphora.

Y 23 V (11) BRC 189 A Late version of Haltern 2; tiny unslipped but rouletted t hin TW.

--> 1st ½ 1 A.D.

Y 23 V (11) BRC 189 – Late poor quality BG with fl. rim, red pigment in;

--> Mid 1 B.C. attested.

--> Y 23 V (11) C BRC 189 – wss of Lamboglia 5/7 platter; G 4/9 rims; PW: black accretions common.

--> Late attested date c. end 2/early 1 B.C.

Y 23 V (11) CUN 212 Brick fabric basin base, ITS of i.p.p. stamp & late Haltern 2; join to Y 23 V (11) BRC 189 A.

--> Mid 1 A.D. attested.

Y 23 V (15) BRC 189: “Repub.” CW base with "anthracite" incls; very TW unslipped Repub. TW; PW plain lid rim.

--> Date uncertain, Republican more likely than post Augustan.

Y 23 V (15) BRC 189 A: ITS of Augustan date, unslip. TW of Repub. date, but also ws of late carinated CC PW bowl; "G" rim bowl, not ARS; odd worn orange CW amphora with banded rim.

1 shard from early 3 A.D., otherwise Augustan is latest attested date.

Y 23 V (15) BRC 189 B CW amphora with buff slip, solid pointed toe broken off, orange, some mica in fabric; pink PW amphora with hollow! (solid) toe, cream slip, po ssibly NA (?); brown CW amphora, break shows applic. of solid toe. All seem to be cylindrical amphoras, form uncertain.

--> Y 23 V BRC 189 (11) C Consistent BG of 2 – 1 B.C.; G 4/9 pot, PW bases; PP CW plain rim lid.

late date late 2/early 1 B.C.

July 24, 1986

G 10/ 86 Pottery :

Y 25 (1) frag of CW lid knob neck !; PW with red slip in.

--> 2/1 B.C.? (does not look like A.D.)

Y 25 (2) BG Lamboglia 27 C; closed form with ring base; rouletted wall with black slip ex suggests 1/2 A.D.

--> 4/3/2 B.C. + 1/2 A.D. (?) ! !!

Y 25 B (2) red fw, red slip, fabric uncertain; solid NA amphora toe of small cylindrical amphora, should be too early for spatheion; what type?

--> Date uncertain.

Y 25 N B (2) ARS CW 197/23 base frag; 181 wall with burnished slip in; wall of 196 (?); rim of 183/184; CC PW; rim of BG bowl.

--> Late 2/early 3 A.D. clearly attested.

Y 25 D (2) ARS 197 rim; PW pot base.

--> Late 2/early 3 A.D.

Y 25 D (3) CW upflared rim of lid.

--> 1/2 A.D.

Y 25 N C (2) PW strap handle & rim of glob. pot; CC PW jug rim (carinated form).

--> 1/2 A.D.

Y 25 C (3) fragmented Ca A bowl/cup base.

--> 3/2 B.C. attested.

AA 24 A (3) – ARS 196 (3x); 23 ws; PW & CC PW; Repub. BG & CW forms

--> Late 2/early 3 A.D.; 1 A.D.; 3/2 B.C.

EE 26 C (3): ITS rim of Goud. (?) (as Lamb. 5/7 in BG); base with rouletting under(!); PW pot; PP CW fl. rim of glob. pot; BG Lamb. 27 B bowl; brown glaze bowl ws.

--> Augustan + 2/1 B.C.

EE 27 X (UN): ARS 23 B rim; ITS ws; BG rim of 1st ½ 1 B.C.; ARS tsc A 8 A ws; PW plant pot with hole in base.

--> Late 2/early 3 A.D. --> 1st ½ 1 B.C.

Z 24 F (3): CW of early date; CW with hooked rim on form of uncertain shape, does not look typical of 1/2 A.D.

--> Uncertain, prob. Republican, date.

July 25, 1986

G 10/86 Pottery:

Miscell. layers:

BB 20 E (1) flat PW base with string-cut marks ex; ARS CW 196.

--> Late 2/early 3 A.D.

BB 20 E (17) – ARS CW 196; triangular rim of CC PW, bowl with carinated wall.

--> Late 2, early 3 A.D.

Y 25 N (1) PW glob. pot with high squared rim; CW pot with narrow horiz. rim.

--> 1/2 A.D.

Y 26 (1) Closed form, BG ws, Campana B; CW orange pot with narrow horiz. rim.

--> 2 B.C.

Y 23 V (16) BRC 189 C – Lamboglia 27 C form bowls, 1 with single unclear stamp in floor; 2 exx of an amphora? type I have not seen; CW base of pot as proto-PP.

--> late 3 B.C./early 2 B.C.

Z 24 A (3) unid. fabric with chipped off red glaze; PW handle, rolled.

1/2 A.D.

--> Y 23 V (15) BRC 189 A: amphora stamp handle, Greek type:

I read AГ / & Dressel 1 amphora (?).


↑ ↑

Y 23 V (15) BRC 189 A, cont: proto ARS CW 196, thin but looks familiar; TW with rouletting (same as P9112 in Y 21 S (13));

Dressel 1 rim; glob. PW large pot with ring base; several

--> pcs with red slip, incl. metallic glaze.

--> 1st ½ 1 A.D. late attested date, 2nd ½ 3 B.C. also common.

Y 23 V (15) BRC 189 B: BG varieties of Lamboglia 25/27; Lamboglia 5/7; Brown matte glaze bowl with flared wall; Extr. unpleasant brown black mineral deposit all over; brown glaze dish with dropped rim.

CW complete lid with asymm. knob; unid. amphora (heavy orange CW, banded rim, strap handle); grimly large G 4/9 hollow NA CW amph. toe; proto ARS 196 & G rim bowl;

--> BG indicates 1st ½ 2 B.C. --> c. 50 B.C., possibly earlier.

CW peg leg of tripod ckg pot;

Misc. Order Layers

BB 18 E CUN 183 (18); PR bowl, more of P9028; ITS chips incl. hemisph. bowl with low flange; rough-cast TW poculum; CC TW jug; BG Campana B fish dish with angular dropped rim; Dressel 2/4 small amph.; NA CW amph, hollow toe; heavy buff CW basin with mortar on interior and breaks;

Late date 1st ½ 1 A.D., earlier material from 2 B.C.

BB 20 E (2): ARS CW 197; CC PW jug; PP CW lid with T rim; jar with horiz. rim; TW poculum with folded back rim; dish with bead rim.

Late 2/early 3 A.D.

Y 23 V (15) BRC 189 C: Bases of large bowls of La 27 B form, n ot pet. est, but large, coarse and ugly. Greco-Italic amphora; another ex. of G 4 CW pot; flare NA amphora rim (ER 2); "Repub" TW with rouletting;

--> Late date set by TW, which suggests 1 A.D., but perhaps entirely incorrectly, otherwise 90%

` 3/2 B.C.

cont.: Brick fabric heavy bowl & dolium/jar.

July 28, 1986

G 10: Pottery Layers (LATE).

AA 22 E (5): ITS chip, CC TW; ARS CW 196, not BT; CW with PP incls.

--> 1/2 A.D.

AA 22 F (5) very mixed bag: 3 exx of BG Lamboglia 27 C; ITS chips incls types of mid 1 A.D.; CC PW and ARS CW 196, not BT, suggests 2 A.D.; inelegant TW types; metallic glaze --> color-coated TW CW; CW forms incl. much Gl/Gl A; fusiform unguentarium; lid with flared knob with interior cut to deep V in CW; plant pot with hole in base in PW; PW basin with double knobbed rim; dolium rim: red fabric, black incls, gold pyrite; Dr. 2/4 rim?

--> Late date certainly 2 A.D., but not necessarily late 2; mix of material with earliest 3/2 B.C.

AA 24 A (3): 2 pcs of NA CW amphora; PW; Pompeian red ware, not Vesuvian, with plain beveled rim; TW poculum, red in, smoke grey ex, banded rim in, like incredibly fine 23 B!; BG hemisph bowl with red black matte glaze.

1/2 A.D., not earlier than 2nd ½ 1.

AA 25 (1) 3 CW shards, not readily identifiable, 1 PP CW.

1/2 A.D.

AA 25 (2) ARS CW 197; PW pot, pink/red pigment in.

End 2/early 3 A.D.

Z 24 A (3) eleg. pet. est. fabric base of Lamboglia

27; NA CW amphora vertical banded rim = Af. gr?

--------> 3/2 B.C.

Z 24 F (3)

uncertain, Af. grande = late 2/early 3 --> 4 A.D.

Y 23 V 189 A (BRC) (15), cont. Flared rim brown BG bowl of 1st ½ 1 B.C.

Does not affect previous dating.

Y 23 V BRC 189 A (16) BG small 3/2 B.C. base, 2 B.C. bowl rim, pale buff CW.

Does not affect previous dating. [3/2 B.C.]

Y 23 V BRC 189 C (16): unusual BG bowl with line and dot pattern formed in floor; closed form BG with strap handle; PW wrn jar with ear handle, some very thin dripped red slip.

PW jar may date to 1 A.D., otherwise 3/2 B.C.

Brick Stamps '86 July 22, 86 JF.


1. 86 - 43 X 21 L (2) lunate circular stamp with large orb, high slender letters:



Evidently refers to a Licinius; interpretation of "B" uncertain:

“from the "Tonneiana" pottery workshop”

end 1/early 2 A.D.

2. 86 – 44 X 21 L (2) lunate circular stamp with medium orb. square letters: 1st line P Ọ N T R Ṭ A T practically illegible;

2nd line


“From the brickwords on the estate of Lucanus(?)”

--> 2nd ½ 2 A.D.

3. 86-7 Y 21 (1) lunate circular stamp with medium orb:

1st line L/EL Ị [

2nd line: EX DR D[

central area: CO [

a consular date: Laelius is one of the consuls of the year.

letters neither partic. tall nor square.

--> probably mid 2 A.D., exact consular date can probably be determined from Degrassi, I Fasti Consulari . . . .

½ acid:

4. “W 20” pulled out by Vandals: circular lunate stamp with fairly small orb: Reads: COS




“L. Bruttidius, a freedman of the Augustus [prob. Septimus

Severus] made this at the brickworks from the pottery

factories of the emperor in the consulship of “Prope[ ] and Ambi[ ]”]

ACID: end 2/early 3 A.D. (exact year can be checked in Degrassi)

5. 86 – 4 EE 16 SVP single line rectangular stamp:

M ∘ T V L ⊦ M L ∘ S A L

to be read as “Marcus the freedman of M. Tullius; (brickworks on the Via Sal(aria)).”

--> Date end 1 B.C., first ½ 1 A.D. Name is that of Cicero, but I think it's un likely that this brick is actually produced by one of his freedmen; brick stamps are ord. a bit later, evidently.

6. 86-45 X 21 L (2) single line rectangular stamp:


to be read ] di Quinti filius Iduari (?): Is Iduarius a cognomen? Letters clear, interp. uncertain. Stamp shape suggests

--> 1 A.D. probably not 2nd ½.

July 26, 1986

Analysis: G 10/86


1. 86 – 64 Y 21 S (8) obv. laureate head. SC

rev. standing figure. AES.

2. 86 – 60 Y 21 U (7) obv. Alexander ??

rev. illeg.

3. 86 – 50 CC 16 C (8) obv. illeg.

rev. illeg. AES.

4. 86 – 58 CC 16 DOR 134 (20) obv. ANTONINUS PIUS


date 140 – 143 A.D. EXERCITUUM. (AES)

5. 86 – 63 EE 27 X UNSTRAT. obv. JANUS head

rev. ROSTRUM illeg AES.

Frank Brown says 40/30 B.C.

G 10/86: Pottery layers (LATE)

Y 23 V BRC 189 A (15): join to P9179, NA CW ER amphora type 2; pce as ARS CW 196, but in non-African ware; BG pet. est base with single rosette; flat baking dish in CW as 196 above; applied “ear” handle in NA CW.

Early 2 B.C. --> 1? B.C. --> 1 A.D.??

AA 24 (3) ITS chip; metallic glaze rouletted TW; fabric imit.? ARS CW; Gl wn jar.

mid 1 A.D.

Y 26 (1) ARS tsc A chip of closed form; BG bowl ws (3/2 B.C.); metallic glaze TW; heavy orange strap handle.

2 back to 3 B.C.

Y 26 (2) ARS tsc A chip; incred. CW button base; PW plant pot.

2 A.D.

Joann Freed


All text and images copyright © 2002 by Walter Widrig and Rice University. Last updated June 2005 by