Provisional Summary of G10/82 Pottery
There was a great deal of pottery to be studied from the 1982 season. I cataloged 278 pieces of special interest, nearly doubling the number of pots which have been cataloged on G10. Despite this industry, the fundamental conclusions which were reached in 1981 remain unchanged. The excavation of 1982 indicates clearly in several areas (U21: BB221/B/cc 22, especially area X; CC 22C; DD18 East F; DD 22 N, EE 22 F and N, that the villa was originally constructed in the first half of the first century A.D. There is no reason to abandon the Tiberian date suggested last year. Destruction rubble all across the site is consistently dated to c. 200 + A.D. More very early and very late (but not a great deal in either case) pottery was excavated in 1982. T18G (4) and (5) contain a concentration of Hellenistic pottery; it appears elsewhere on site, but this is the only "pure" context. Combed pottery and Forum ware appear especially in CC 22; Gaza amphora may date from IV – VI, but I think it is more common in V and VI. The same date is good for combing; which, however, contrives through the Middle Ages. Form 76 dates to c. 450 A.D. The most amazing find stratigraphically is a rim shard of ARS Form 91 A in EE 22 C (5) (P5209). This absolutely identified piece dates to the second 1/2 of the 4 th C.A.D.
There is a certain amount of Italian terra Sigillata of the mid-first C.A.D. this year; one example of Eastern Sigillata B1 and another piece of Eastern Sigillata B2 (P5231) DD18 East K (3) in a mottled orange black fabric, again of Hadrianic date, as P4062 in 1981. Three pieces of stamped Italian terra Sigillata were excavated. Two platter bases with double-line stamps are among the earliest products of Arezzo, and can be dated to c. 25 B.C. Both P5278 and P5273 appear in superficial contexts (GG27 East (1); CC 22 (1)). P5278 has an illegible stamp; the broken stamp of P5273 reads L.E//SA M/. I have seen this stamp before, but I am not sure how to reconstruct it: probably Lucius E [ ] Samia. A later platter is again stamped with the elegant in planta pedis stamp of C. Clodius Salsinus (as P 4047 from DD 18 West G 5 of 1981). The 1982 piece is P5258, CC 22 D (4).
Other pieces of special interest in 1892 are P5100, a large lead glaze jar, found in BB22/B/CC22 E (5) and (7). The context includes pottery from 200 B.C. to 200 A.D.; however, the ordinarily accepted date for Roman lead glaze is c. 50 B.C. to 50 A.D.
Two pieces have epigraphic interest. A large amphora toe bears the stamp "PA" (Paul Arthur, take note) (P52120, EE 22 A (5). I do not recognize the amphora type or stamp, but I suspect it could be tracked down in the Ostia volumes. A plain ware base from X16 North (2) has the name or salutation /A GA y./ painted on its bottom (therefore probably a name). Agathos ("Good") or Agatha would probably have been a Greek slave (P5088, X16 North (2)).
The most interesting pieces to me are unslipped thin-walled finely rouletted coarse ware of the first half of the first century A.D. Pieces of this type in 3 layers (P5127, BB22/B/CC 22 E (5); P5214 in T 18 A (3); P5164 in DD 19 East N (4)) "amalgamate" to produce a most unexpected profile; a large "cup" with a beaded, carinated rim, carinated wall and small base suggested by the angle of the lower wall. At the carination of the lower wall, a straight hollow handle (not a spout), broken, but even so, six centimeters long, projects out at a slight upward angle. Whether there is another such handle opposite, I cannot guess. The whole thing is interesting because of its unhandiness, reminiscent of some Italian Hellenistic black glaze "constructions".
I could not spare enough time to study the brick stamps thoroughly, but I had time to identify several, using B. U. Hartmann's very fine drawings: 82.43/82.28 and another fragment all from U21 S= CIL XV.1, 710 b. of Hadrianic date. A large stamp in W 20 N (5) = CIL XV.1, 1030 A= 134 A.D. 82.77 = CIL XV.1, 1057 = 137 A.D. A number of stamps, dated to first half I A.D. and to the era of Domitian, have not yet been tracked down. Another stamp of 134 A.D. appears in Z 14 B (2) (Sarrianos III COS). In general, the range of stamps is very similar to that seen in previous years (see 1981 summary).
I have not been able to check over the complete amphoras from 1982, but identifiable fragments in the layer bags give a good idea of the range from the 1982 excavation.
Pieces to be drawn have been selected. There are probably close to 200 of them; that is a minimum of 2 – 4 weeks work for one person. Since there was so much pottery of interest this year, it is of the utmost importance to have someone drawing all season next summer, the work is all ready and waiting to go.
Datable material in the layers. October 22, 1982
P5001 – P5015 in boxes as nearly complete pots.
G10/82 CC 195/B/DD 19 SE (5)
Late date c. 200 + A.D. from mini ARS 197.
Early date I.A.D T.W. beaker
P5016 – P5019
G10182 CC 19 South / B / DD 19__
2 exx of ARS 23 B, also base of 197, rim of Form 3, (no dec)
plan ware jar t D rim and rouletting on wall ex, tiny fragments of CW amphora? Rim of African bowl, perhaps form 14-16
all c. 200 – 250 A.D.; Form 3 may be earlier.
P5020 – P5021
G10 / 82 CC 19 S / B / DD19 S E (6)
Earliest shard in Rep unglazed TW t sharp fine pignola (I.B.C);
ITS shards of mid I A.D. (3 pots represented); color-coated plain ware strap handle should be end I ® end II+ on VG site; numerous shards of worn orange plain ware jar t flared flat rim (c. 200 A.D. at VG S10), 1 African? Amphora rim
October 23, 1982
G10/82 CC 19 South/ B / DD 19 South D (2)
ARS 23 B, 196, (2x); very interesting painted common ware, 1 CW pot. Material dates end III early III A.D., as topsoil, same tr.
P5023-P5027 + [P5021]
G10/82 CC 19 South (1)
3 shards, 1 of Hayes 8 or 9, i.e. 2 nd C A.D.
G10/82 CC19 South B (2)
CC shard; rim probs. of ARS 23A
G 10/82 CC 19 S / B DD 19 S D (5)
Join with [P5021], same tr., D (2)
Spanish amphora?, ARS 197 (2 exx); 196 (2 exx); rim of w-mouthed pitcher as P5001, lead glaze shard (probably Roman); PR lid, no red slip; ex. of cc pl cup as P5026 (probably same pot); base in the layer (P5030) slid be drawn; CW rim similar to P5025; jug base of same fabric as pitcher; rather confusing layer, late date 2 nd C.A.D.; earliest material (its chip) mid I A.D.
P5029 – P5038
G 10/82 cc 19 S A (2)
Something special going on here. 6 pieces of Afr. Amphora cut to approximately rim diameters of 8 cms.; should be listed as small finds.
ARS 197; ARS 196 (2 exx) with slightly swelled rims; 3 exx of large basin with wide horizontal rim (3 sizes); ARS Form 27?, or Form 14?; CW spout or rim of jug; chip of CCPW horizontal rim.
Dated pottery suggests II A.D. – early III.
P5039 – P5044
G10/82 x 18 L (3)
Crucial point here is early date for glazed TW and sand-cast TW. Probably layer can't be dated earlier than 20 A.D. or so. Otherwise: everything could be Augustan or end I B.C. PR, TW, PW. Earliest piece is TW metallic shine BG, probably not later than mid II B.C.
P5045 – P5047
G 10/82 Z 14 A (3)
Both CW pot and campana. A shard indicates a very early layer; 3 rd/2 nd century B.C.
G 10/82 AA 16 (1)
Early buff CW fabric with large mica incls., cut sq. and probably used as a tessera; small cup with thickened rim I A.D.
G 10/82 Z 14 (1)
A runngy layer.
2 nd Century A.D., ARS: 197, 23, 14/16/27 (all shards only); probably 196. CW
ITS of 2 nd half I A.D. cc PLware.
[BG lamp shoulder still in bag.] [Very shattered.]
BG chip of circa 200 – 100 B.C. Odd jar.
P5050 – P5023
G 10/82 Z 14 B (2)
ARS 197, 23 B, cup of type we've seen before; 196?, no black rim. circa 200 A.D. ITS cup P5050 assoc. with i.p.p. stamp. Mid I A.D.
PR bowl with red slip in, late I B.C. type.
T ++ TW with large "pignote" mid II A.D.
Course "span" amphora with round vertical (probably double) handle.
Jug rim as P5001.
African amphora rim.
Red BG large bowl, looks 2 nd century B.C.
Mixed as context can be.
P5054 – P5063
G 10/82 Z 14 (1) cont.
[P5053] better ex.
ARS 197, 23 B, shard of tsc C2., ITS, CCPW, broken bit of wide-mouthed pot as VG type 1 or 1a;
P5064 – P5065
H 10/82 Z 14 A (2)
Should be S.F. amphora shard cut to stopper size, as in CC 19 S A (2)
3 shards of evid. early medieval jug.
2 shards of Campana B; 2 nd – 1 st B.C.
G10/82 x 18 L (2)
ARS 1 definitely c. 200 + A.D. (196); another (196) without the orlo annerito, (may be earlier).
ARS 2 nd c. base, very red fabric and slip.
Dressel 2-4 amphora handle
Rim and knots (2 pots) of lid with asymm knob; profiled rim
Extremely eleg. TW piece of ITS.
Late date 200+ A.D., also material of I A.D., incl. Early I.
G10/82 x 16 North (3)
ARS 2 exx of 197, 1 with black ex, other orange. C. 200+
Anomalous TW ARS shard, perhaps tsc "C1", c. 230+
Early hard ITS platter base. C. 1 A.D.
TW reduced and overfired pocula with rouletting. C. 1 A.D.
2 shards of reddish BG of I B.C.
CW cking pot with dropped rim, VG Type 1A jar, lid as P5069, lid with extended turn under, flat based large glob. Cking pot. 4 fabrics in CW herc.
P5071-P5077, Looks like mix of c. 200+ with c. 50 B.C.-20? A.D.
G/82 x 16 North A (3)
Join to ITS platter P5072; base of P5073; lots of TW, include. Sandcast; ARS 197 (2-3x); 3 TW beakers; "porta pia" PP CW lid; CW jar in micaceous fabric; 3 plw pots (pale buff) with one jug with vertical grooves; TW orange shard [P5072; P5076; P5073; P5075; P5071] same date as x 16 North (3) (5 joins).
X 16 North A (3), cont.
(Seems to be a concentration of Augustan mat. Mixed with 200+ A.D. destruction.)
x 16 South (2)
Same shards as in last 2 layers.
ARS 197 (same pot in x 16 North (3)); cc PLW base.
As dates above.
X 16 North (1)
Dr. 2-4 amphora handle.
TW rim of cup or beaker.
X 16 North (2)
Shard with painted / A Г A Θ / Rep. TW; painted Plain W., another piece of P5076 (VG type 1A), ARS Hayes 8A, 23B, 197.
ARS CW lid without orlo annerito, buff PW base with profile.
Date as X 16 South (2), North A (3), North (3)
X 18 L (3)
Buff plain ware pot; slightly larger version of P5083.
Several rilled buff plain ware shards.
Can't be dated closer than 1st or 2nd C.A.D.
X 16 A (2)
Hayes ARS 197, CC Plain ware, 2 strap handles from large jugs or amph. (1 red CW, 1 buff PW); TW base
[P5078] Red CW lid with asymmetric knob & prof. rim; TW CW pot (beaker)
Same date as X 16 layers above
G10/82 X 16 X (3)
Plant pot exactly similar to P5007 (may be same pot). Buff PW pot very similar to P5082 in X 16 North A (3) . C W lid of type as P5069 and P5089 ("PP" fabric).
ITS shard of mid 1 date; rose metallic TW beaker with coarse rouletting. Worn plain ware pad base
G10/82 BB 22 C (3) (3 lamp shards should be small finds.)
GA handle 5th/6th c. A.D.
Glassy pale blue LG.
Painted common ware with painted red band. (date as GA? prob. Early med.)
2nd C ARS Form 8 or 9, 197
ITS; 2 chips from an early platter & 1 rim of Goud. 43, 2nd ½ 1 A.D.
CC Pl W chips. Coarse ware incl. early pot (2nd c. B.C.?);
Brown glaze on Campana B? shard; lots of TW incl. metallic glaze from mid 1 A.D.
G10/82 BB 22 / B / CC 22 E (7)
Dressel 2-4 Amphora (shoulder & handle spring).
LG jar (gives form to shards seen before).
(CC PlW reddish mottled to black) shard which may be shoulder of large jar; ARS 196; CW lid as P5069, P5089;
TW shard; large plain ware rim of basin; another with what is evid. its base.
not earlier than 2nd c. A.D., earliest material is 1 A.D.
G10/82 BB 12 W (C) (6)
ARS 196, unusually steep ex.
CW lid with slight round under.
1 and 2 A.D.
G10/82 BB 22 / B / CC 22 E (8)
ARS 197; rose orange, fairly thin amphora shard with yellow buff thin slip; TW CW shard; TW CW cking pot; heavy lid with rolled edge on upper side.
P5107 Date 50 B.C. to 200+ A.D.
G10/82 BB 22 / B / CC 22 E (3)
VG small ex. of type 1A pot (rim only); CC PlW; amphora? shard with streaks with no buff paint; CW cooking pot.
P5108-P5109 1–2 A.D.
G10/82 BB 22 / B / CC 22 E (7)
Quite gd Hayes ARS 197; (base joins to ½ of BD); ARS "lid" of new type; Bowl as 8A at rim, but wide and shallow as 14/16; tiny 196 lid complete rim to base; heavy coarse CW base; glob. TW pot with pignola dec.
P5110-P5114 Pcs from 1st ½ 1 A.D. & pcs from c. 200+ A.D.
G10/82 BB 22 / B / CC 22 (1)
Pelichet 47 base; ARS 23B; chip of ITS.
P5115 Usual date range (c. 1 A.D.) & c. 200+ A.D.
G10/82 BB 22 / B / CC 22 X (17)
TW, roughcast shard; rilled strap handle with slightly metallic redbrown glaze; base of amphora?, early CW.
likely date 1st ½ 1 A.D. (nothing certainly later).
G10/82 BB 22 / B / CC 22 X (16)
Marble round with this layer is a small find!
ITS chip (1st ½ 1 A.D.), 3 TW shards with metallic glaze.
Should be not before 15 A.D. ∴ 1st ½ 1 A.D.
(earliest possible date c. 20 A.D.?)
G10/82 BB 22 / B / CC 22 A (2)
ITS chips, perhaps from a cup or bowl?
Repub. TW base.
TW shards, roughcast. c. 15‑50 A.D.
Slight metallic glaze on pot (not TW).
Early CW; incl. probable ex. of VG Type 419.
P5118-P5120 date 1st ½ 1 A.D., nothing later.
G10/82 BB 22 / B / CC 22 E (4)
TW, beautiful red brown metallic glaze shard with oblique long pignole, rim missing.
P5121 c. 15–30 A.D.+
G10/82 BB 22 / B / CC 22 E (5) [frag. of lampbase]
Amphora--Pélichet 47 shoulder & handle.
Dressel 2-4 shoulder.
LG rim of pot P5100; raised bumps along upper outer edge of rim.
TW beautiful unglazed orange beaker;
3 shards of pce with thumb-indents;
ARS 23B & no. of closed vessel, I believe.
BG shard, 1 Camp. A, + 1 Camp B.
CW VG Type 1A rim, complete small lid of P5069 type;
pot with lid inset. Extremely overfired greenish shard with rough surface look medieval.
Range of dates c. 200 B.C.–c. 200+ A.D.
G10/82 BB 22 / B / CC 22 D (2)
3 shards of Turkish amphora (Kapitaen 2); not before 2 A.D.
TW--metallic glaze, 1st ½ 1 A.D.
TW--unglazed Repub. (1 B.C.). 4 exx
CW pot. 1 B.C.-50 A.D. & 200+ A.D., as P5133-P5134 many other contexts prev. noted.
G10/82 BB 22 / B / CC 22 A (5)
BG Campana A rim of small flared cup.
TW 2 shards of metallic glaze over rough-cast.
P5135 c. 200 B.C. & c. 1st ½ 1 A.D.
G10/82 BB 22 / B / CC 22 C-A (2)
TW metallic glaze shard.
TW fine repub. rim chip (late 1 B.C.)
BG Campana B. bowl shard.
CW prob. of 1 B.C.
CC PW; orange fabric bowl with red interior, probable graffito (shard illeg.).
P5136 1 B.C., 1st ½ 1 A.D.
G10/82 BB 22 / B / CC 22 X (15)
TW with red brown slightly metallic glaze, trace of sharp thin pignola.
early 1 A.D.
G10/82 BB 22 / B / CC 22 (2)
TW CW beaker rim
G10/82 DD 19 East A (1)
Amphora--Toe of African type.
Amphora, local? very coarse buff fabric, vertical rim & wall.
Amphora, Pél. 47 handle.
CW wall of VG Type 1 or 1A pot
Amphora with flared rim, "Punic" type.
Amphora, coarse orange, prob. Spanish fabric.
ITS, good cup chip, early 1 A.D.
ARS shard of "C2," 3rd–4th c. A.D.+ 197, 196, 23B.
CC PLW. rim & wall of pot with horizontal rim.
PlW pot and base with trace of CC like P5001 jug.
(Unusual no. of amphoras & great variety).
VG Type 1 CW rim
CW large jar with dropped rim.
P5137-P5144 1st, 2nd–early 3 A.D. (+ ?).
G10/82 DD 19 East (1) SF flat roof tile cut to 8.0 cm.
Diam. for stopper.
Amphora Dr. 2-4. (handle chips). Several unid. types.
Huge strap handle of pinkish buff fab. amphora with buff slip.
ITS--chips & shard with relief moulding--all early.
ARS, exx of 197, 196, 23B.
ARS Form 50 B in nice hard "tsc C2," should date c. 350 A.D.
TW CCPL with pushed back rim as P5026 in CC 19 S / B / DD 19S E (6)
CW. orange shard with fine squared rouletting.
P5145-P5147 early c. 1 A.D., + usual 200+ ARS +
ars of c. 350 A.D.
G10/82 DD 19 East K (2)
ARS 23B; poor quality bowl as 14/16?;
TW metallic glaze very thin wall (.2.)
2 exx of CC PlW basins;
CW pot base with mica (looks Repub.);
Buff PW basin c. 50 B.C.–50 A.D.; c. 200+ A.D.
G10/82 DD 19 East M (4)
ARS 23B, 197
TW with dull brown metallic glaze.
Amphora. Sharply curved strap handle. Prob. Africana grande.
P5151 1st ½ 1 A.D.; early 3+ A.D.
G10/82 DD 19 East K (1)
Plain ware large basin with wide rim.
African amphora handle.
ARS bowl base of end 2 A.D.
Amphora handle frag (Dr. 2-4).
TW CC buff cup.
1st ½ 1 A.D.; early 3 A.D.
G10/82 DD 19 East M (3)
ARS chip 2 A.D.
CC Plain ware
Late date end 2/early 3 A.D.
G10/82 DD 19 East K (1)
ARS odd pce, prob. 2nd c. A.D.
2nd c. A.D.
G10/82 DD 19 East Q (2)
Buff plain ware base.
2nd c. A.D./early 3 A.D.
G10/82 DD 19 East M (3)
BG 2nd–1st c. B.C.
PL 3 big buff plain ware basins.
CC Plain Ware cup with folded back rim.
Amphora--African type (wall shard)
Dressel 2-4 (handle frag).
ARS 197, 196, 23B, 27/31; odd shard, burnished one side, unslipped the other
2nd-1st B.C.+ 1 A.D.(?)+ end 2nd+ A.D.
G10/82 DD 19 East O (2)
ARS 197, 23B, 196
CC Plain ware, incl. jug to draw; also ws of bowl with carinated wall. Buff plain ware.
CW incl. lid as P5069, VG type 1A jar.
Amphora: base of Pél 47 shard of Turkish amphora (Kap. 2): rim of Pél 47.
P5154-P5158 Date Augustan+ c. 200+ A.D.
G10/82 DD 19 East O (3)
Odd content--many unusual pcs.
Identifiable ITS, TW, PR.
Tiny ARS shard with oolites as odd Form 50 ARS in G11.
(Probable date c. 200+ A.D., but only dated by context, could be later).
CC Plain ware flanged cup.
Metallic glazed TW cup or beaker.
ARS chip of 2 A.D. bowl; 2 anomalous shards I can't date; ∴ may be later than 3 A.D.??
P5159-P5162 Augustan & 200 A.D.+
G10/82 DD 19 East N (4)
Lots of buff plain ware (3 strap handles). ARS bowl 14/16.
CW cking pot with recurved wall; iron munge in base.
CC Pl. base, form as 1 A.D. TWCW odd carinate bowl with fine rouletting.
Pale buff jug with strap handle, sharply rilled wall, paint streak, looks medieval.
P5163-P5166 Augustan+ end 2+ A.D.
G10/82 DD 22 (1)
ITS; almost all Aug. Haltern 3, 7 or 8?, also Goudineau 43.
ARS 197, 196, 27, 5 or 7? Buff plain ware with rim rolled under.
TW rough-cast BG--Campana A & B
Amphora, Kap 2; Dressel 2-4; type from local brick; African fab.
Mortarium base?? 200 B.C., Augustan, mid 1 A.D.
P5167-P5175 c. 200 A.D.+
G10/82 DD 22 E (2)
ARS Form 8 rim chip, Käp. 2 Turkish amphora chips.
2 large amphora toes (prob. Dressel 2-4);
CW cooking pot of same form as P5008. (Pot may be 1 A.D.)
P5176 200 A.D.+
G10/82 DD 22 X (3)
CW cooking pot; form ex. as P5008, but smaller.
Rep. TW with cord dec. 1 B.C. & ? for pot; fabric suggests Augustan.
G10/82 DD 22 N (5)
Plain ware wall of pot with irt. step as P5104.
Very poor quality BG? of 1B.C.
G10/82 DD 22 N (3)
ARS unid., prob. 23 B.
CC PW; worn TW.
early 1 A.D., c. 200 A.D.
G10/82 DD 22 N (8)
ITS excellent late Haltern 12
Repub. unglazed TW with tiny pignola
P5179 c. 50 B.C.–50 A.D.
G10/82 DD 24 (1)
Amphoras. Pél 47 base & handle; African pcs.
ARS 197 & 23B : local mortarium floor
ITS chips, TW chips, poor quality BG
Augustan+ c. 200 A.D.
G10/82 DD 22 X (2)
Unpalatable amphoras: vertical rims, local brick fabric.
ARS rim chip of large Form 6.
CW pot as P5008.
CW pot with hollow rim (chip only).
Rep. TW beaker; delicate version of P5127.
P5180 Augustan+ 2nd c. A.D.
G10/82 DD 22 N (2)
ARS 196, 23B, 196, 8A, "C2" shard.
E SB2 base. CC PW & TW (not early).
Amphoras: Käp. 2; local brick with vertical rim.
CW Type 1A jar of 36 cms. diam. (rim shard).
Amazing CC PL jug rim.
P5181-P5182 1 A.D., c. 100 A.D., c. 200 A.D.; 3rd A.D.
G10/82 DD 24 (3)
Hellenistic banded ware.
CW shard: looks African.
P5183 4th/3rd c. B.C.
G10/82 DD 22 A (3)
Maroon bowl, = red BG, Campana B fabric.
Rim of CW jar Type 1A., CW rim of 4/9 pot.
Small light orange plain ware pot.
G10/82 DD 22 N (4)
Repub. TW pocula
G10/82 DD 22 A (4)
PL base; CW pot
G10/82 DD 22 N (7)
grey plain ware shard
G10/82 DD 22 S (2)
Wide horiz. rim in local brick fabric.
Painted plain ware.
Date 1/2 A.D.
G10/82 DD 22 N (10)
TW Unglased Repub. shard with not very fine vert. rouletting.
G10/82 DD 22 N (6)
ITS: extremely fine quality TW chip.
TW with rose metallic glaze.
CW plain lid.
G10/82 DD 24 (2)
Amph. Dressel 2-4.
Buff plain ware.
Flared bowl rim, fake ITS.
1 A.D.: c. 200 A.D.
G10/82 DD 24 Z (2)
ITS (Haltern 3); relief-moulded pce.
Repub. unglazed TW.
Buff plain ware.
G10/82 DD 22 E (3)
Grey CW version of ARS 197.
G10/82 DD 24 E (2)
Small poor quality "ITS" bowl with low carination, rouletting on wall
ARS of exagg. 196 type; burnished ex but no oolites.
P5188-P5189 1st ½ 1 A.D.; c. 200+ A.D.
G10/82 DD 22 A (2)
Amphoras: Pél. 47 scraps,
CW. SG Type 1A pot.
BG. Form 27 Campana A? rim
TW. Repub.–1st c. A.D.
Unguentarium neck chip.
ITS shard of Augustan platter base.
P5190-P5192 2nd–1st c. B.C., Augustan+, c. 200 A.D.
G10/82 EE 22 G (2)
Amphoras: Dr. 2-4; Spanish type?
Probable plant pots.
Repub. TW & ITS chips; TW base with profile.
Amazing lid: amphora stopper?
P5193 Augustan., ?
G10/82 EE 22 C (6)
ARS 196, 197
TW with subtle metallic glaze + rough-cast.
CW G11 Type 4 Repub. pot (RD 22)
CW cooking pot
P5194 2/1 B.C., 1st c. A.D. --> Claudius; 200 A.D.
G10/ 82 EE 22 Y (2)
ARS 50 B in C2: (prob. same bowl already noted).
Sutri form pot, type 1A pot rim, profiled buff plain ware base.
1/2 A.D., 3rd/4th c. A.D.
G10/82 EE 27 East (1)
Campana A shard & A bowl.
ITS new form, looks Aug.
CW pot rim.
P5195-P5197 2/1 B.C./Augustan.
G10/82 EE 23 A (4)
CW pot of VG Site 11 type 4, very early (2nd c. B.C.).
ITS of Aug. date.
Subtly glazed TW.
P5198-P5202 2nd c. B.C.; Augustan.
G10/82 EE 23 E (2)
Pinkish buff profiled pot base.
G10/82 EE 22 E. P. (3)
Amphoras 2-3 Pél. 47 bases.
ARS base of Form ?; early 3 A.D.
CW pot rim of VG Type 1A rd 38.
G10/82 EE 22 (1)
Amphoras: Dr. 2-4: Africana; Pélichet 47; Kapitaen 2 shard
ARS, 9A 8B, 197; 3 shards of "C2."
ITS - Aug. shards.
BG Campana A/B?, shiny black g.
2/1 B.C.; Augustan; 200+ A.D.; 3/4 A.D.
G10/82 EE 23 G (2)
ITS eleg. shard of Augustan cup.
Rep. TW (wall .1 cm.)
G10/82 EE 23 D (1)
ARS shard of 2 A.D. fine ware (8, 9)
ITS eleg. shard.
Augustan; 2nd c. A.D.
G10/82 EE 23 A (1)
ITS - Augustan.
G10/82 EE 22 Q (4)
TW, CW. amphora
G10/82 EE 22 N (3)
CW Type 1A jar;
Orange CW with fine square rouletting.
Amphora, shard of Turkish/Kapitaen 2
CC PW base of jug.
P5206 Augustan; 1/2 A.D.; 200+ A.D.
G10/82 EE 22 N (5)
ESB1 small cup; only dots of paint ex; slipped in.
TW CW (unglazed)
G10/82 EE 22 N (2)
ARS 196, Form 6 rim chip.
CW VG Type 1A jar rim.
P5208 1/2 A.D.; c. 200+ A.D.
G10/82 EE 23 R (4)
ARS 196 shard.
CC Plain Ware squared off shoulder? or base.
1/ 2 A.D.
G10/82 EE 22 C (5)
ARS Form 91 A; 4th c. A.D.
CC Plain Ware.
P5209 1/2 A.D.: 4th c. A.D.
G10/82 EE 22 E (4)
ARS 196; VG Type 1A CW jar; 2 shards of P5203
Severan ARS form; buff plain ware, CC PW
1/2 A.D.; 200+ A.D.
G10/82 EE 27 East X (1)
BG Campana A Form 27 ws.
200 B.C.− end 1 B.C.
G10/82 EE 22 C (2)
ARS 23B, 197.
ITS. Repub. TW. worn pce of CC PW?
Augustan; c. 200 A.D.
G10/82 EE 23 (1)
2nd c. ARS, ITS chip. TW chip
1st ½ 1 A.D.; 2 A.D.
G10/82 EE 22 P (2)
African amphora toe; strap handle of another amph. (Africana grande?)
G10/82 EE 22 A (5)
Amphora toe; stamped (PA)
P5210 Date uncertain.
G10/82 EE 22 C (3)
Pél. 47 amphora base. VG Type 1A CW jar;
Enormous straight walled CW jar RD 20 H 19.0 Wall 1.5, very chipped.
ITS CC PL, Augustan TW.
P5211 Augustan; c. 200+ A.D.
G10/82 T 18 A (3)
ARS 197 BG chip.
CW VG Type 1A jar; PR bowl with plain rim
TW CW cup with bead rim & amazing lower wall.
P5212-P5213; P5214 1 B.C., Augustan+, c. 200 A.D.
G10/82 T 18 B (3)
Pél 47 amph (handle) BG shard, Campana A/B??, Aug. CW.
1 B.C., Aug./200+ A.D.
G10/82 T 18 18 A (4)
Hell. shard with BG one side, black bands ex. 4th c. B.C.?
CC PW. ← 4th c. B.C.; 1/2 A.D.
G10/82 T 18 (1)
Buff plain ware, Repub. CW chips.
1 B.C., 1 A.D.?
G10/82 T 18 G (5)
CW 4 ex. of VG11 Type 4 pots ("Etruscan or early Repub")
BG base & ws with very thin "white" paint on BG.
P5215-P5219 3/2 B.C.
G10/82 T 18 G (4)
BG chips as Campana A & B?
G10/82 T 18 (2)
Dr. 2-4 Amphora handle chip.
Straight hollow handle of P5214 (cf. P5164).
TW CW Aug./1 A.D.
G10/82 T 18 C (3)
Buff RW shards. Date uncertain.
G10/82 T 18 A (3)
1 buff plain ware jar, ridged.
G10/82 U 21 South B (3)
Huge vertical jar occurs again (a local amphora?).
G10/82 U 21 South (1)
Amphora toe of fat Spanish? amph.
Dressel 2-4 amph.
Eleg. Aug. TW; ARS 23B VG Site 11 Type 1A jar.
Augustan; (1/2 A.D.).
G10/82 U 21 South (2)
ARS 197, 196. Dressel 2-4 Amphora.
1/2 A.D., 200 A.D.+
G10/82 U 21 South A (3)
Repub. TW. 1 B.C./Augustan.
G10/82 U 21 S X (2)
BG. Campana A/B? shard of small cup or bowl
G10/82 U 21 South X (1)
CW handle Date uncertain.
G10/82 U 21 S (3)
ITS shard Augustan
G10/82 U 21 South M (3)
ITS shard--rim of TW pocula in ITS. Augustan.
G10/82 U 21 South C (3)
CW VG Site 11 Type 1A jar. 1/2 A.D.
G10/82 W 20 N (5)
Buff glob. pot with wide horiz. rim.
Rouletted TW/CC PW.
ARS 196 mid 1 A.D.; c. 200+ A.D.
G10/82 W 20 N (4)
ARS 196, same pce in N (5)
c. 200 A.D.
G10/82 W 20 N (2)
Shard of P5221. Date uncertain.
G10/82 W 20 N (3)
Shards of orange compact CW amphora Date uncertain.
G10/82 W 19 B (3)
Amphora rim; ITS cup base Early/mid 1 A.D.
G10/82 W 19 (1)
BG Campana A/B.
2 B.C./1B.C.; 200+ A.D.
G10/82 W 19 / B / X 18 B (2)
ARS 196, nice slim ex. c. 200 A.D.
G10/82 W 20 / B / X 18 (2)
VG 11 Type 1A jar
BG Campana A/B bowl. c. 200 B.C.; 1/2 A.D.
G10/82 W 19 / B /X 18 C (3)
CW big lid with rim rolled up ex.
ITS chip of Goud. 43 mid 1 A.D.
G10/82 W 17 (1)
Amph. Dr. 2-4 handle.
ARS 197, 196
Good ITS chip. 1st ½ 1 A.D.; 1/2 A.D.; c. 200+ A.D.
G10/82 W 20 (1)
TW. rough-cast beaker
ITS anomalous fabric small cup Claudian; c. 200+ A.D.
G10/82 W 17 A (2)
CW "Porta Pia" rim of pot or lid. 1 A.D.
G10/82 W 20 M (2)
Amphora shard: Turkish or Kapitaen 2 c. 200+ A.D.
G10/82 W 20 / B / X 18 (1)
BG Campana B type shard. c. 150−50 B.C.
Curved amphora handle.
G10/82 WW 40 West (1)
CW orange; grey (reduced), 3 shards. Date uncertain.
G10/82 O 14 A (2)
ARS "C2" shard.
TW. Repub. unglazed profiled base. 1 B.C.; 3/4 A.D.
G10/82 O 14 B (4)
TW Rep. very TW unglazed shard.
VG Site 11 Type 4 CW jar with buff slip over rim.
BG chip of Ca. A. 3/2 B.C., 1 B.C./1 A.D.
G10/82 O 14 B (3)
TW plain ware base end 1 B.C.
G10/82 S 14 X (4)
CW Type 1A jar. 1/2 A.D.
G10/82 S 14 X (3)
Orange PW TW jug neck chip 1 B.C./A.D.
G10/82 S 14 Y (3)
Plain ware; ridged grey brown ware like Kap. 2 amphora, but not very micaceous Prob. 1/2 A.D.
G10/82 DD 18 East N (4)
ARS 196, 197 and ⅓ complete 27. c. 200 A.D.
G10/82 DD 18 East N (6)
Ars 196, 197, 14/16 rim chip. c. 200 A.D.
G10/82 DD 18 East M (4)
ARS 197, 196 & Buff CC PW base. c. 200+ A.D.
G10/82 DD 18 East K (2)
ARS 197, 23B.
VG 1A CW jar.
CC PW. BG (Ca A/B) chip.
P5227. c. 2/1 B.C.; 1 A.D.; c. 200+ A.D.
G10/82 DD 18 East M (3)
ARS 14/16 rim chip.
Buff plain ware wide bowl or jar. 1/2 A.D.; c. 200 A.D.
G10/82 DD 18 East S (6)
ARS 8 A, 196.
Buff plain ware from at least 2 pots; one a long pear-shaped pot as P5001.
P5229 1/2 A.D.; c. 200 A.D.
G10/82 DD 18 East K (3)
ARS 8A, 23B, 197 ESB2 bowl, burnt.
PR shard; Odd TW rim; looks like ARS.
ITS chips; cup rim
G10/82 DD 18 East F (2)
ARS 196; unusual hard red ARS fabric with tiny base ring; ARS fabric with burnishing & oolites.
G10/82 DD18 East M (2)
ARS 196, 14/16 c. 200 A.D.
G10/82 DD 18 East M (1)
ARS 23B, 196, rim of 5th c. plate 76/87A? (chip only).
Amphoras, incl. Dr. 2-4 1/2 A.D.; 200+ A.D.
G10/82 DD 18 East A (1)
ARS 196, 197, 23B, odd 2nd c. type, "C2" chip.
ITS with IPP stamp, toes preserved only.
BG (Ca A/B?).
1 B.C., Tiberian+; 200+ A.D.; 3/4 A.D.
G10/82 DD 18 West F (22)
ARS 196 (2x); CC PW; Rep. TW. Augustan; 1/2; c. 200+ A.D.
G10/82 DD 18 East N (3)
ARS Hayes 197 c. 200+ A.D.
G10/82 DD 18 East F (1)
ARS 197; CC PW bowl with Δ rim, rouletting above carination.
c. 200+ A.D.
G10/82 DD 18 East (1)
ARS 196, very thin rim, not blackened. 2 A.D.? or earlier?
G10/82 DD 18 W F (20)
ARS 196; mini 197; TW CW; CC PW
1 A.D.; c. 200 A.D.
G10/82 DD 18 East F (3)
buff fine ware; maroon slip or glaze. Date uncertain.
G10/82 DD 18 East F (17)
Buff PW; CW lid "Porta Pia" fabric; CC TW beaker
Augustan+ A.D.; 1/2 A.D.
G10/82 DD 18 East M (6)
ARS 197; end 2 and pce with tiny base ring; "C2" shard, probably from Form 50 B.
200+ A.D.; 3/ 4 A.D.
G10/82 DD 18 West G (8)
ITS cup with moulding (shard). Augustan
G10/82 HH 23 North (2)
CW Date uncertain.
G10/82 HH 32 / B / HH 33 (1)
Amphora - Africana Grande toe?
TW - 1/2 A.D. type with carinated wall 1 A.D.; end 2 A.D.+
G10/82 BB 22 A (5)
ARS 197; Repub. TW, CC PW. August: c. 200 A.D.+.
G10/82 W15 A (4)
ARS 197 mini, not really black ex
ITS Goudineau 43 (2 exx): wall of cup or bowl.
TW metallic glaze rough-cast (Claudian).
Shard with red pigment.
CW incls. "Porta Pia" lid with arrow-profile rim.
BG (Ca A) Form 27B; another shard dates c. 2 B.C.
P5238-P5241 c. 200 B.C., Claudian/mid 1; c. 200 A.D.
G10/82 W 15 A (3)
BG Carn. A 27B. & same date CW. PR.
ITS of early-mid 1 A.D., Claudian TW, "Porta Pia" CW.
Shards of pot with red pigment.
BPW & CC PW
ARS 197 & 196 (pcs look early). 200 B.C.; Claudian; 2 A.D.
G10/82 W 17 (3)
CW VG Type 1 pot 1/2 A.D.
G10/22 W 15 A (2)
ARS 197, 23 B, mini 197
Buff & orange BW; amphora handles, "Porta Pia" CW.
BG 200 B.C., 1 A.D., 200 A.D.
G10/82 W 15 (2) (lamp frag)
Var. of unid. amphora.
ARS 197 & mini 197; 2nd c. bowl, flat burnished floor.
Buff PW, CC PW, TW (Claudian); CW ("PP" type).
BG. 2 B.C., early 1 A.D., c. 200+ A.D.
G10/82 W 15 (1)
ARS 196, 197, 23 B. ITS shard (P5242).
Unid. amphora. early 1 A.D., c. 200 A.D.
G10/82 W 18 B (4)
ARS 197?; CW VG Type 1A jar; local brick amphora rim.
P5251 1 A.D., c. 200 A.D.
G10/82 W 18 A (3)
ARS 23B, slightly burnt. c. 200+ A.D.
G10/82 W 18 (2)
ITS chip, TW, CW, CC PW 1 A.D.
G10/82 X 18 B (2)
CW pot very similar to P5177 ("PP" fabric).
G10/82 W 18 D (3)
Spanish amphora (Dressel 20) ??
3 vertical jars with heavy walls (amphora rims?)
G10/82 W 18 B (3)
ARS 23 B, 196 CW lid with asymm. knob.
TW pot base; BG chip. 2/1 B.C., 1 A.D., 200 A.D.
G10/82 W 15 (3)
ARS early 196, Claudian rough-cast met. glaze TW;
pinform unguentarium; 2/1 B.C.; Claudian, 2 A.D.?
G10/82 W 15 A (1)
VG Type 4 CW jar; buff PW; heavy buff jar (heavier version of P5241).
c. 200 B.C.; 1/2 A.D.
G10/82 W 18 C (3)
Heavy vertical wall CW/PW jars. 1 B.C. B.G.
G10/82 W 18 G (5)
Heavy shoulder amphora, prob. local manuf. Date uncertain.
G10/82 W 18 H (5)
TW beaker with subtle metallic rose glaze. Augustan/Claudian.
G10/82 W 15 B (3)
Heavy vertical wall jar.
CW VG Type 4. BG (Ca. B) chip. c. 200 B.C.‑1 B.C.
G10/82 W 17 A (3)
ARS 197; ITS chip; tiny dye pot with yellow pigment.
P5255 early 1 A.D., c. 200 A.D.
G10/82 W 17 (2)
ARS 23 B. Heavy amphora (Dr. 20) handle.
c. 200 A.D.
G10/82 W 18 (1)
ITS chip; amphoras (unid.); Repub. CW. 2/1 B.C.; 1 A.D
G10/82 W 18 G (4)
CW/PW heavy vertical wall jar with round cut rim.
P5256 Date uncertain.
G10/82 W18 B (5)
ARS of early 3: unid amph. c. 200+ A.D.
G10/82 Fire plow furrow
ARS of end 2 A.D. amphoras, pce of asbestos!
G10/82 CC 22 D (4)
ITS. TW. "Porta Pia" CW, ITS stamp of CCLOSAB. Tiberian/Augustan.
G10/82 CC 22 D (3)
CW lid joins (P5260); metallic glaze TW, buff PW. Tiberian.
G10/82 CC 22 J (3)
CW pot shaped like TW beaker Date uncertain, looks 1 A.D.
G10/82 CC 22 A (3)
ARS bowl base as P5112; 196 rim.
ITS pcs from several Augustan forms.
TW‑Repub. & sandcast.
jug rim (broken at every possible extent!)
PW ‑ recurved forms (TW). Augustan/Tiberian; 2 A.D.
G10/82 CC 22 A (2) (lamp chip)
dolium base bd 21.0 (local brick fabric).
Pél 47 rim. mortarium base (local brick fabric)
Kapitaen 2 amphora (Turkish).
ARS 196, 8A, spout.
ITS ‑ Augustan and mid/2nd ½ 1 A.D.
TW chips from numerous Augustan/Claudian poculae
CW VG Type 1A jar.
G10/82 CC 22 A (5)
ARS totally reduced and TW 197.
ITS chip. TW ‑ large pocula with pignole, orange metallic glaze.
P5271‑P5272 1/2 A.D.
G10/82 CC 22 A (4)
Proto ARS? ‑ lid with flared rim. n.b. almost vitrified (overfired) CW jug.
ITS of 1 A.D. (incls. Goud. 43).
lots of TW chips. 1 A.D./2? A.D.
G10/82 CC 22 A (1)
Spanish Dressel 2-4 amphora.
ARS 197, most pcs from 1/2 A.D.
G10/82 CC 22 C (5)
ITS chip. Repub. TW chips. burnt CW. 1st ½ 1 A.D.
G10/82 CC 22 G (3)
CW (TW) 1 A.D.
G10/82 CC 22 B (1)
ARS of 2 A.D. (prob 196). tiny chip with wavy combing.
end 2/early 3, 5 A.D.
G10/82 CC 22 B (2) (lamp chip)
ARS 197, 23 B
ITS, BG Form 27 B, ESB2 with design P5291 bag. scratched in.
chip with combing c. 200 B.C., 1 A.D., 2 A.D., 200+ A.D.; 5 A.D.+
G10/82 CC 22 H (5)
TW; CW, fabric looks Repub.
1 B.C./1 A.D.
G10/82 CC 22 I (5)
Very fine TW (Repub.), unid. CW. 1 B.C.
G10/82 CC 22 C (2)
cream-slipped orange/brown compact CW.
Very fine CC TW beaker. early 1 A.D.
G10/82 CC 22 (1) (lamp chip)
Dr. 2-4 amphora; African Amph. toe.
ITS incl. Goud. 43; early Augustan platter base with double-line stamp
ARS 8A; 196; early 23 B; & ? may be 3 or 91; 197
Buff plain ware.
Forum ware (2 chips) in special bag with layer.
P5276 Augustan, 1 A.D., end 2, 6/ 7 A.D.
(Forum ware now believed to begin by 600 A.D.)
G10/82 CC 21 (1)
ARS 196, mini 197.
CW VG Type 1A jar.
G10/82 CC 22 Unstrat.
ITS Goudineau 43 rim; 1 A.D. CW 1 A.D.
G10/82 CC 22 D (2)
ITS cup with vertical rim.
Combing. 1 A.D.: 5 A.D.+
G10/82 CC 22 F (3)
TW CW pot with hole in bottom. 1 A.D.
G10/82 GG 27 East A (2)
Gaza amphora handle & wall shards.
BG, ITS, TW end 1 B.C./4‑6 A.D.
G10/82 GG 27 East (1)
early Augustan ITS platter base.
ARS Form 8A.
Gaza amphora + Span. Afric., Ital.
CW shard with stabbed combing. end 1 B.C., 2 A.D., 4‑6 A.D.
G10/82 GG 27 East (2)
ITS, TW, BG. end 1 B.C.
G10/82 GG 27 East B (2)
Closed form with traces of BG. looks 4/3 B.C.
G10/82 GG 29/ B / GG 30 (1)
CW date probably 1 B.C./A.D.
G10/82 GG 29 / B / GG 30 B (2)
BG Campana A chip from lamp or handle.
Summary of Trench dates:
0 14 : Activity there c. 200 B.C. and before 25 B.C.; destruction material includes 3/4 A.D. ARS.
S 14 : Roman coarse ware, not dated more closely than site.
T 18 : (3) layers are evid. destruction material (contemporary to it); (4) & (5) levels are Hellenistic.
U 21 : South (1) & (2) are contemp. with destruction; other layers end by early Augustan period (certainly by 1 B.C.); X (2) only has pot of c. 200 B.C.
W 18 : A & B layers (3)-(5) all are contemporary with destruction. Other areas may not be significantly earlier.
W 19 : (1) is destruction; B (3) is Augustan.
W 15 : Superficial layers c. 200+ A.D.; A (3) & (4) end in or by 2 A.D. & include abundant material of 1 A.D. (Note A (3) has coin of M. Aurelius.) B (3) is 1 B.C.
W 17 : all 2 A.D. and 200+ A.D.
W 20 : all 2 A.D. and 200 + A.D.
W 19 / B / X 18 : B (2) is c. 200+ A.D.; C (3) 1 A.D.
W 20 / B / X 18 : material ends mid 1 B.C.
X 16 : In North, all dates to destruction except A (3) and X (3); which essentially date to 1 A.D. Lots of 1 A.D. pottery especially in A (3). South (2) dates c. 200+ A.D. (destruction material).
X 17 : not closely dated.
X 18 : Destruction material in L (2); otherwise 1 A.D.
AA 16 : 1 A.D.
BB 12 W (C) (6) : c. 200+ A.D.
BB 22 / B / CC 22 : Analysis of material suggests that floor (X) here is early to mid 1 A.D.; but that E area drain was dug in 2? A.D. and in use at end of site.
CC 19 : Almost all material is contemp. with destruction.
CC 21 : Almost all material is contemp. with destruction.
CC 22 : Layers (1) and (2) in this trench contained 2 shards of Forum ware & 3 examples of combing, all suggesting a date probably 6/7 A.D. All layers below destruction material of c. 200+ A.D. seem to date to the first c. A.D., except I (5), which dates to end 1 B.C.
DD 18 East : In M (1), a pce of ARS may be dated to mid 5 A.D. All layers in this trench date c. 200+ A.D. except F (3) and F (17). The date of these layers is probably Augustan.
DD 18 West : Destruction material, c. 200+ A.D.
DD 19 East : All layers contemporary to destruction.
DD 22 : Below destruction rubble layers of c. 200+ A.D., layers essentially all date Augustan/first ½ 1 A.D.
DD 24 : Destruction layers (1) and (2): (3) contains a Hellenistic pot & a pce of ARS CW which may date to 1 A.D.
EE 22 : Layer C (5) contains ARS Form 91A, from the mid-fourth c. A.D.! Area C layers (2)-(6) are otherwise contemporary with destruction of villa c. 200+ A.D. Layers dated earlier than destruction in EE 22 are G (2) and N (5) (bedrock cut), both of Augustan/Tiberian date.
EE 23 : Augustan date where not destruction.
EE 27 : Hellenistic and Augustan.
GG 27 : Shards with combing and Gaza amphora at surface suggest 5th c. A.D. and later. Other material ranges from Hellenistic to 2nd c.+ A.D.
Z 14 : While (1) and B (2) have material of 200+ A.D. and 1/2 A.D., all layers here have Republican BG, probably of 1 B.C. Z14 A (2) also has a shard with combing, probably of 5 A.D.