The 1980 G10 pottery
summary, which was based on pottery evidence alone, suggested two major periods
of occupation on Site 10, the earlier in the Augustan period and the later in
the late second and early third centuries A.D.
G10/81 pottery suggests only slight modifications
to the general picture seen in 1980. The pottery again suggests two major
periods; the earlier running from c. 50 B.C. to c. 50 A.D. and the later c.
The earlier of the two major groups is
characterized by a few fragments of black glaze of the later first century B.C.
(for instance, a Lamboglia Form 16/28,
P4104, EE23 B(3), very thin-walled unglazed beakers (P4019, V23 N 4) or
beakers with a subtly iridescent glaze (P4106, CC15 West A 4) and Italian terra
sigillata of Augustan (P4096, V23 N 2; P4012, V23 N 2; P4064, BB20 South Z(6),
P4088, BB20 South Z (8) and Tiberian date (P4047, DD18 West G(5)). This last
piece is dated by an in planta pedis stamp: the type does not
appear before the reign of Tiberius. Contemporary coarse ware types, especially
lids with asymmetrical lid knobs, were also found.
The late group is
characterized by African Red Slip coarse ware forms 23 A, 23 B, 182, 196 and
197 in quantity and ARS fine ware forms 3 C (the large version), 8 B, 14 and
27. There are several contemporary forms (dated by association) in color-coated
plain ware-the most common of these is a jar, evidently with a single handle,
which is recognizable by its sloping wall and narrow horizontal rim. The most
common associated coarse ware form is a wide-mouthed jar with a wide horizontal
rim, which is beveled on the underside. A complete jar of this type, with a
rounded base, was found in topsoil in 1980 (P3061, X18 1 and BB12 D 1).
In addition to these two major groups, there are
very slight amounts of material from a period c. 200 B.C. Black glaze sherds in
Lamboglia Forms 27 B and 25 B, often in the fabric of the Petites Estampilles
workshop, appear in:
AA16 X (4)
BB20 North A (2)
BB20 South Z (8)
CC15 West B (4)
EE23 H (2) and (3)
Two pieces of contemporary coarse ware (G4 and G4/9 in
the Site 11 typology) occur in AA24 2. One piece of uncertainly identified
Campana A black glaze appears in CC15 West A 3, a likely piece of Hellenistic
banded ware of the fifth/fourth centuries B.C. appears in topsoil (DD16 South
One of the most interesting pieces on the
site is a unique bowl of black Eastern Sigillata B. (P4062, BB20 South Z 4 and
8), a fabric type for which John Hayes suggests a Trajanic or Hadrianic date.
There is very little other excavated material which specifically belongs to the
late first or early second century A.D.: no examples of the Italian sigillata
forms dominant in the mid-first century A.D. (Goudineau Forms 43 and 38), no relief-moulded
Late Italian terra sigillata, no Gaulish sigillata, no red Eastern Sigillata B
2 and very few examples of early ARS fine wares as Forms 3 A, 3 B, 7, 8 A and 9
A few sherds clearly postdate the large group of
material from the late second and early third centuries A.D. An example of ARS
Form 50 A in "terra sigillata chiara C", most likely of the second
half of the third century A.D., appears in BB12 C 2. This piece could
belong to the early third century A.D., but another example of Form 50 in BB22
A 2 is probably of the fourth century A.D. More specifically datable is a
stamped ARS base sherd (P4125, EE18 West 1, Hayes stamp motif 26, stamp type
A(i)), which Hayes dates c. 320-350 A.D.
Sherds with wavy combed decoration, which
appears in the late fourth or early fifth century A.D. (and may continue for
several centuries), appear in BB22 A 3, BB12 C 2 (P4014) and EE18 West 1/EE17
North 2 (P4063).
Two small, somewhat insecurely identified sherds
of ARS, possibly of the late fourth or early fifth century A.D, are the latest
closely datable pieces excavated in 1981. P4060 (DD18 West 1) may be a
sherd of Form 91 B; P4139 (EE17 North 1) may be a sherd of Form 66.
No new examples of 'Forum Ware' were found
very nice pieces were excavated in 1981: in particular, the wall of an Italian
terra sigillata modiolus with a relief-moulded pattern of grape vines
and bunches (P4096); a small complete red-slipped beaker, with very thick walls
for this form and with a barbotine thorn decoration (P4081); a rather
mysterious complete vessel, probably contemporary with the late second/early
third century group, which has a form reminiscent of a large, elongated
cucurbitula (P4066); and a Dressel 2-4 amphora which is two-thirds complete,
from rim to belly (P4144). A scratched graffito on the shoulder of this amphora
may read "LA".
The pottery material is compatible with the
evidence of the coins and brick stamps if it is recognized that most of the
early material was originally stratified below the construction level of the
villa rustica, while the large group of pottery of the late second and early
third century A.D. represents the late occupation and destruction material for
This explanation has been offered for the datable
finds excavated at the Terme del Nuotatore at Ostia (Carandini, et al., Studi
Miscellanei 13, 16, 21, 23), which was built c. 80/90 A.D., but does not
yield significant quantities of pottery of the second and early third centuries
A.D., the period during which it was actively occupied. Building interiors are
kept tidy during a period of intensive occupation.
The findspot of the coins of Alexander Severus
and Maximinus provides a terminus post quem of 238 A.D. for the destruction of
the villa rustica and construction of the late barn. This fact suggests that
the large late group of pottery should better be described as a group of the
first half, or even second quarter, of the third century A.D.
Some stratified early
material was dug in 1981; taken together, this material suggests a date for the
construction of the perimeter wall and early plan of the villa.
V23 N 2, material associated with the perimeter wall and evidently below floor
level included the ITS modiolus described above, which is almost
certainly of Augustan date, and a platter with a high squared base ring
(P4012), of the same approximate date. A slightly later piece of ITS, probably
of Tiberian date (also mentioned above), was found in DD18 West G 5, along the
south perimeter wall of the villa. The in planta pedis stamp
is of C. Clodius Sabinus (CCLOSAB); sixty-one similar examples are listed in
Oxe-Comfort (455). Comfort also published six examples of bases with this stamp
from the collection of the American School at Rome (MAAR VII (1929), pp.
192-193). He describes C. Clodius Sabinus.as an Arretine manufacturer who
evidently works only in the period when the foot-shaped stamp had been
introduced. Comfort places the introduction of the stamp type to 20 A.D. While
Comfort describes Sabinus as "recentius" (i.e., fairly late in the
Arretine continuum), the base profiles he shows with this stamp type probably
date c. 20 to 30 A.D.
very little material has been excavated on which to base a date for the
construction of the villa, there is nothing to suggest a date later than this
piece. It establishes a terminus post quem for the villa
construction in the period 20-50 A.D.; I would suggest a date c. 20-30 A.D. on
the present evidence. This date is also compatible with the early group of