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Introduction

Catalogue

References

 

Via Gabina, Site 10 Villa

I. Iron

II. Copper-alloy

III. Lead

 

Via Gabina, Site 11 Villa

I. Iron

II. Copper-alloy

III. Lead

IV. Silver

 

Introduction

The whole excavated metalwork assemblage from Sites G 10 and G 11 was examined. Most of the ironwork was in poor condition and corrosion had reached an advanced stage in some cases. The resulting lamination, surface depletion and fragmentation rendered identification difficult or impossible. Thus, in addition to the catalogued iron artifacts there were many indeterminate small broken fragments. There were also numerous iron nails, both fragmentary and complete. The vast majority were of the ubiquitous Roman form, Manning's Type 1 (Manning 1985, 134-7, Pl. 63, Type 1.), and they have been excluded from the catalogue. Excluded, also, were small, not diagnostic fragments of copper-alloy and lead.

The remaining groups of metalwork were not large--165 catalogue entries for G 10, and just 44 entries for G 11. Nevertheless, they provide some sort of gauge, however tenuous, for the range and scale of activity on the sites. To assess those activities the artifacts were grouped into the categories usually encountered on Roman sites: 1) weapons, 2) transport items, 3) craftsmen's tools, 4) agricultural equipment, 5) knives, 6) other household apparatus, utensils, and personal objects, 7) locks, keys and door furniture, and 8) structural and other fittings. The data are presented in Tables 1 and 2.

Both sites yielded finds in the categories that would be anticipated for villa/farm complexes, though each produced some variations. The lack of weaponry occasions no surprise on sites with no known military usage, but the presence of military horse pendants at G 10 (G 10 copper-alloy objects nos. 7-10) is intriguing and not easily explained. Though it is tempting to postulate a connection with the Imperial Post, another, more mundane, explanation is probable. The complete absence from G 11 of other harness and vehicle-fittings, and their virtual absence from G 10, is rather more surprising and provides little evidence for the use of riding or draught animals at either site.

Remarkable, too, is the absence of craftsmen's tools. These are a common component of ironwork assemblages on villa sites, and they might have been anticipated at both G 10 and G 11. It is possible that agricultural specialization at both sites precluded such craft activity, and that the products of smith and carpenter were bought elsewhere rather than being manufactured on-site. Nor was the number of surviving agricultural tools great at either site, and G 10 it was proportionately very low. Yet the few tools found do not conflict with the suggested land use, and the ploughshare from G 11 (G 11 iron objects no. 2) is a find of exceptional interest.

The household component, high at G 11, included writing styli, sewing needles, and tweezers as well as several vessels, including the handle of a large wine jug from G 11 and a complete pan or ladle from G 10. But the most commonly found articles of household equipment are knives, and the eleven examples from G 10 (G 10 iron objects nos.4-14), which comprise about 10% of the ironwork assemblage there, are of the order expected of a villa site. Very surprising, and not readily explicable, is the complete absence of knives at G 11. In a sense, however, it is the presence, not the absence, of metal artifacts that requires explanation. Iron could be re-forged and copper-alloy and lead re-cast, so even worn-out or broken objects would seldom have been discarded. In fact, the evidence does tend to indicate a careful control of materials: when the categories are considered in terms of portable (categories 1-6) or fixed (categories 7-8) objects, it can be seen that less than 20% of the G 10 assemblage and only a little more than 30% of the G 11 assemblage is portable. That is to say, the great majority of the surviving metalwork from both sites was in the form of door furniture and structural fixtures and fittings, which were not easily removed when the sites were abandoned.

Of the 'fixed' objects revetment clips were a negligible component at G 11 but were the largest single category of metal finds at G 10, where ornamentation of the villa included colored marble revetments and Campana reliefs in some profusion. The clips, made both in iron and copper-alloy, are diagnostic and should be sought at other, less well-preserved sites where they can provide evidence for the former existence of costly wall coverings. Another characteristic though hitherto unknown structural fitting is the hooked staple combined with a split-spiked loop (G 10 iron objects nos. 40-50). Its function is uncertain, but it may have been a simple hinge or some kind of suspension device. It is hoped that future finds will help to clarify its use.

Both sites were equipped with baths by the later 1st cent. AD, and water may have been consumed in large quantity. That the flow of some of this water was carefully organized and controlled is evidenced by the lead piping fragments from both sites (lead objects G 10 nos. 1-3, G 11 no. 1) and, more dramatically, by the copper-alloy component from a tap or stopcock at G 10 (G 10 copper-alloy objects no. 18).

In summary, the overall picture at both G 10 and G 11, as provided by the metalwork, is of sites maintained fairly carefully, with little casual loss or disposal of portable metal objects. Those few that were found give evidence of agricultural and domestic activity, while the more plentiful structural fixtures and fittings show, amongst other things, the normal preoccupation with security in the form of numerous keys, lock components and door fittings.

 

Catalogued Metal Finds from G10

Iron Copper Alloy Lead All Metal
Categories No. Cat. Nos. % No. Cat. Nos. % No. Cat. Nos % No. %
1) weapons - - - - - - - - - - -
2) transport items 1 110 0.9 5

7-10,

37

10.9 - - - 6 3.6
3) craftsmen's tools - - - - - - - - - - -
4) agricultural equipment 3 1-3 2.7 1 4 2.2 - - - 4 2.4
5) knives 11 4-14 9.9 - - - - - - 11 6.7
6) other household apparatus, utensils, and paraphernalia 3 15-17 2.7 7 1-3, 5-12 15.2 - - - 10 6.1
7) locks, keys and door furniture 19 18-36 17.1 7 13-14, 19-23 15.2 3 4-6 37.5 29 17.6
8a) revetment clips 31 73-103 27.9 12 25-36 26.1 - - - 43 26.1
8b) other fixtures and fittings 42 37-72, 104-9 37.8 4 15-17, 24 8.7 - - - 44 26.7
8c) plumbing - - - - 1 18 2.2 3 1-3 37.5 4 2.4
9) miscellaneous/ unidentified 1 111 0.9 5 38-42 10.9 2 7-8 25.0 8 4.8
10) grave goods - - - 4 43-46 8.7       4 2.4
TOTAL 111     46     8     165  

 

Catalogued Metal Finds from G11

Iron Copper Alloy Lead All Metal
Categories No. Cat. Nos. % No. Cat. Nos. % No. Cat. Nos % No. %
1)weapons - - - - - - - - - - -
2)transport items - - - - - - - - - - -
3)craftsmen's tools - - - - - - - - - - -
4)agricultural equipment 4 1-4 14.3 - - - - - - 4 9.1
5)knives - - - - - - - - - - -
6)other household apparatus, utensils, and paraphernalia 4 5-8 14.3 5 1-5 35.7 1* 2 50 10 22.7
7)locks, keys and door furniture 4 9-12 14.3 5 6-10 35.7 - - - 9 20.5
8a)revetment clips - - - 3 12-14 21.4 - - - 3 6.8
8b)other fixtures and fittings 14 13-26 50.0 1 11 7.1 - - - 15 34.1
8c)plumbing - - - - - - - 1 1 50 1 2.3
9)miscellaneous/ unidentified 2 27-8 7.1 - - - - - - 2 4.5
10)grave goods                      
TOTAL 28     14     2     44  

 

 


Catalogue

Villa Gabina, Site 10 Villa

IRON OBJECTS

Via Gabina Metal Objects Figure

1. Mattock or axe-adze.
    G 10/80 BB 12 Q (2) SF no. 80.192
    L 25.2 cm Wt c. 550 gm.

The tool is of the normal Roman form, combining two blades set at right angles to one another. The sub-circular shaft-hole is blocked with corrosion and with a nail, probably driven into the head of the wooden handle - a common expedient, then as now, to brace a loose handle. Advanced corrosion has caused lamination and flaking of the surfaces which are also encrusted. This is unfortunate as it is now impossible to ascertain how sharp the cutting edges were originally. If sharp, the tool was probably a carpenter's axe-adze; if, as seems more probable, they were slightly blunt, it was probably an implement of agriculture - a small double bladed mattock. For Roman mattocks see Manning 1985, 44, F8.

Fig. 1; Pl. 1

 

Via Gabina Metal Objects Figure

2. Pruning hook/leaf hook.
    G 10/84 W 22 Q (2) SF no. 84.169
    L 19.5 cm Wt c. 30 gm.

A light, slender, hooked blade with a long narrow tang. The blade, which is sharp on the inner (concave) edge only, splays at the base where it meets the tang. The tang, complete and of rectangular cross-section, bears mineral-replaced remains of its wooden handle, especially near the junction with the blade. A variety of light agricultural and viticultural uses my be envisaged for this tool, including pruning and the cutting of leaves for fodder. The type is discussed by Manning (1985,53-8).

Fig. 2; Pl. 2

 

3. Shears.
    G 10/85 AA 22 C (2) SF no. 85.104
    L 12.7 cm

One blade from a medium-sized U-shaped spring shears. The blade is triangular, with a lightly concave back and a lightly convex cutting edge. Its tip is broken. The broken tang is characteristically splayed towards the spring. Hinged scissors were absent in the ancient world and many of their tasks were fulfilled with spring shears. The size of this example would be suited to general household usage as well as the shearing of sheep and cutting of textiles.

Fig. 3

 

4. Cleaver.
    G 10/87 AA 23 C (4) SF no. 87.22
    L 13.3 cm Wt c. 50 gm.

A socketed knife with a large, deep sub-triangular blade. The back is convex and the cutting edge straight. The socket is very short and proportionately narrow. Despite the rather diminutive socket this was probably a cleaver for butchering meat. It resembles Manning's Type 4 cleaver (Manning 1985, 120-123). For a similar though heavier example with a more normal-sized socket see Jackson 1990, 64, 276, P1.29, 276.

Fig. 4

 

5. Knife.
    G 10/83 DD 19 (4) SF no. 83.72
    L 17.7 cm (originally, unbent, at least 21 cm)

A heavy, solid-handled knife. The blade, quite slender and apparently approximately parallel- sided, is bent, and the end is broken. The handle, proportionately large and heavy, is circular sectioned. It has a lightly domed terminal, a molded junction with the blade and is knobbed in imitation of a 'Hercules club'. The elaboration of this most unusual form of knife, notably the highly decorated handle, suggests it had a very specific use, but one which is not, at present, known.

Pl. 3

 

6. Knife.
    G 10/86 Y 23 Area V (6) SF no. 86.56
    L 17.4 cm

A rod-handled knife. The handle has a rounded rectangular cross- section and terminates in a simple coiled suspension loop. The elongated triangular blade has a straight back and a straight cutting edge. Manning's Type 1lb knife (Manning 1985, 109,Fig.28).

Pl. 4

 

7. Knife.
    G 10/82 CC 22 D (2) SF no. 82.247
    L 9.6 cm

A small tanged knife with lightly hooked tip. The slender, broken, rectangular-sectioned tang is set centrally to the blade. The blade is slender and parallel-sided, with a lightly plano-convex cross-section and a gently upturned tip, the end now broken. An unusual blade form, perhaps related to Manning's Type 7 B-C knives (Manning 1985, 112, Fig.28 and nos. Q17-21), some of which may have served as razors.

Fig. 6

 

8. Knife.
    G 10/87 AA 19/20 S (2)
    L 10.5 cm

A broken and distorted blade of flat triangular cross-section. The back is humped and falls to the tip in a concave curve. The cutting edge is a flattened S-curve. The form of the blade is very similar to Manning's Type 7B knife (Manning 1985, 112, Fig.28.)

Fig. 7

 

9. Knife.
    G 10/84 W 21 Q (4) SF no. 84.198
    L 9.5 cm

A broken blade. It is parallel-sided and very slender, with a flat triangular cross-section. The back slopes down sharply to meet the edge at the tip. Very similar to the blades of Manning's Type 1 knives (Manning 1985,108-110, Fig.28) which are of 1st or early 2nd century AD date.

Fig. 8

 

10. Knife.
      G 10/88 BB 15 So. A (2)
      L 7.6 cm

A broken blade, with a straight cutting edge, parallel-sided blade back, thin triangular cross-section, and a steep nose.

Fig. 9

 

11. Knife.
      G 10/88 W 15 A (4)
      L 6.2 cm

Blade fragment, only, from a small knife, broken at both ends. It has a comparatively thick, low-humped back and a straight cutting edge.

Fig. 10

 

12. Knife.
      G 10/82 W 18 B (5) SF no. 82.128
      L 5.0 cm

A broken blade from a small knife with flat triangular cross-section. The back is straight, the cutting edge sloped.

Fig. 11

 

13. Knife.
      G 10/80 BB 12 D (1) SF no. 80.28
      L 9.2 cm

Only the large rectangular-sectioned tang and the stub of the blade survive. From what remains of the blade it appears to have had a straight back and a convex cutting edge.

Fig. 12

 

14. ?Knife.
      G 10/87 Y 21 So. N (10)
      L 6.5 cm

A tanged blade broken at both ends. The slender rectangular-sectioned tang is set centrally to the blade, which tapers evenly top and bottom. It is impossible to tell whether the blade had a single or double cutting edge.

Fig. 13

 

15. Stylus.
      G 10/86 BB 20 Area E (3)
      L 9.4 cm

A small example, complete except for the tip of the slender writing point. The triangular eraser is short and broad; the stem is of circular cross-section; and the shoulder/grip above the writing point is decorated with a series of disc and ring moldings.

Pl. 5

 

 

16. Stylus. Unillus.
      G 10/85 Y 23 P (2)
      L 9.5 cm

An apparently plain example with broken writing point. The wedge-shaped eraser is simple and slender, the stem of circular cross-section.

 

17. Pin.
      G 10/80 X 18 G (3) SF no. 80.62
      L 3.2 cm

A small example with a rolled, lightly grooved head. The shank is broken. Probably a dress- or hairpin.

Fig. 14

 

18. Key.
      G 10/80 BB 12 M (5) SF no. 80.214
      L 11.5 cm L teeth 2.5 cm

A complete slide key with the teeth set on a stepped (Z-shaped) bit. There are six teeth, all complete, of rounded rectangular cross-section, and possibly of slightly different form and size. The softened rectangular-sectioned handle tapers evenly from top to bottom. It has a collar-like circular suspension loop, block with corrosion. For a discussion of the type see Manning 1985, 91-93 and Fig. 25, 4-5.

Pl. 6

 

19. Key.
      G 10/79 P 1-0 D (5) SF no. 79.38
      L 7.1 cm L teeth 1.8 cm

A small slide key with the teeth set on a stepped (Z-shaped) bit. There are five teeth, two of which are broken. The complete ones are square-ended. All have a rectangular cross-section. The short rectangular-sectioned handle tapers from top to bottom. Its collar-like circular suspension loop is neatly made.

Pl. 7

 

 

20. Key. Unillus.
      G 10/78 O 12 A (4) SF no. 78.22
      L 8.6 cm

A badly corroded slide key with at least. four teeth set on a stepped (Z-shaped) bit. The rectangular-sectioned handle is stout and tapered with a broad, circular collar-like suspension loop.

 

21. Key.
      G 10/87 Y 21 So. N (8) SF no. 87.74
      L 8.8 cm L teeth 2.6 cm

A slide key with six teeth set on an elliptical (C-shaped) bit. Corrosion obscures most detail but the teeth appear to be of rounded rectangular cross-section. The gently tapered handle has a softened rectangular cross-section, and a collar-like circular suspension loop. For a discussion of the type see Manning 1985, 91-93, Fig.25, 6.

Fig. 15

 

22. Key.
      G 10/82 X 16 A (3) SF no. 82.332
      L 7.0 cm L teeth 2.2. cm

A small slide key with the teeth set on an elliptical (C-shaped) bit. There are five teeth, two of which are complete. They are long and thin, of rounded rectangular cross-section, and Possibly of slightly differing form and size. The handle has a rounded rectangular cross-section and terminates in a neatly made collar like suspension loop.

Pl. 8

 

 

23. Key. Unillus.
      G 10/81 BB 15 North B (2)
      L teeth 1.9 cm

An elliptical (C-shaped) bit fragment from a slide key. There are four teeth, only one of which is complete.

 

24. Key.
      G 10/83 EE 22 C (3) SF no. 83.205
      L 6.7 cm (orig. c. 7 cm) Bit. 3.3 cm x 1.4 cm x 0.8 cm

A small slide key with five teeth cut into the straight rectangular bit. The handle, of rounded rectangular cross-section, ends in a broad, collar-like suspension loop, now mostly broken away. corroded to the loop are the remains of the suspension chain, comprising a plain, circular, copper-alloy ring and a fine copper alloy chain made of small, double, loop-in-loop links.

Pl. 9

 

25. Key.
      G 10/83 CC 18 B (13) SF no. 83.203
      L 5.6 cm Bit. 2.3 cm x 1.1 cm x 0.8 cm

A small slide key with teeth cut into a straight rectangular bit. The rectangular-sectioned handle is short and markedly tapered with a circular suspension loop. Heavy corrosion masks most detail, including the number and form of the teeth.

Pl. 10

 

 

26. ?Key. Unillus.
      G 10/86 AA 22 F (5)
      L 10.1 cm

The flat rectangular-sectioned handle has a flat disc terminal with a small circular eye. The bit, flat and rectangular, is probably broken. Probably an L-shaped lift key.

 

27. ?Key.
      G 10/88 BB 15 A/50 (2)
      L 8.4 cm

A tapered rectangular-sectioned strip with the broken stub of a turned-over suspension loop at the narrow end and what appears to be a rectangular bit, broken across its perforation, at the broad end. Probably a small padlock key

Fig. 16

 

28. Hinge Strap.
      G 10/85 AA 22 C (2) SF no. 85.102
      L 6.3 cm W strap 2.9 cm

The looped terminal of a large drop-hinge strap. The loop, of rounded cross-section, was never fully closed. The strap, which meets the loop at a marked shoulder, is broken across the First nail hole. Probably from a door or large chest.

Fig. 17

 

29.Hinge staple. Unillus.
       G 10/86 Y 21 Area S (8)
       L 15.5 cm Ht. 6.3 cm

L-shaped staple for a drop-hinge. A large example of normal form, with a rectangular-sectioned spiked bar and blunt-tipped, circular-sectioned upright.

 

 

30.Hinge staple. Unillus.
        G 10/80 BB 9 G (2) SF no. 80.98
        L 6.6 cm Ht. 3.8 cm

Similar to no. 29, but smaller.

 

31. Hinge staple.
      G 10/85 AA 22 (1) SF no. 85.5
      L 5.7 cm Ht. 3.2 cm

A small drop-hinge staple, with a circular-sectioned upright and rectangular-sectioned bar. Instead of a spiked end the bar terminates in a small loop, in which is engaged a retaining pin with small round head.

Pl. 11

 

32. Hinge staple.
      G 10/87 AA 23 C (4) SF no. 87.21
      L 5.8 cm Ht. 2.3 cm

As no. 31, except that the bar terminal is a pierced D-shaped plate.

Pl. 12

 

33. Hinge.
      G 10/84 BB 23 (3) 036 SF no. 84.171
      L 6.5 cm

A small stout strap-hinge, of normal one-and-two plate form. One of the tapered arms is near complete; the other retains a small nail in situ near its broken end. The rigidity of this type of hinge and the size of this example would have been well suited to use on smaller, (especially cupboard) doors. For a near-identical example from London, see Manning 1985, 127, P1.59, R13.

Fig. 18

 

34. Door pivot.
      G 10/80 X 18 V (3) SF no. 80.85
      L nail 8.8 cm

A stout example. The collar is well made and has the remains of lead packing adhering to the lower wall exterior. The nail has a large, circular, lightly domed head, flat on the inside. On its rectangular-sectioned stem are mineral-replaced wood fragments. It appears to have been hammered into the end of the doorpost, its head forming the lower plate of the pivot. For lead and composite copper-alloy and lead examples see VGIO lead objects, nos.4-5. Diam. collar, internal 4.5 cm

Pl. 13

 

 

35. ?Door stud. Unillus.
      G 10/80 BB 12 M (8) SF no. 80.159
      Diam. head 2.8 cm

Part-hollow, dome-headed nail, perhaps from a door.

 

 

36. ?Door stud. Unillus.
      G 10/87 BB 21 E (2)
      Diam. head 4.3 cm

Large, heavy dome-headed stud.

 

 

37. Wall hook. Unillus.
      G 10/88 Z 15 (3)
      L c. 10.5 cm (orig.)

A U-shaped wall hook of normal form, with a flat, rectangular sectioned spike, now distorted, and a rounded square-sectioned hook with a hemispherical terminal knob.

 

 

38. Wall hook. Unillus.
      G 10/85 Y 23 Feature 189 (1)
      L 5.1 cm

A small U-shaped wall hook with hemispherical knobbed terminal. The spike is broken.

 

 

39. Wall hook. Unillus.
      G 10/85 BB 17 A C (4)
      L 7.1 cm

An L-shaped example with spiked rod and simple square-ended upright

 

40. Hooked staple with split spiked-loop.
      G 10/87 Y 20 W (2) SF no. 87.36
      L staple 11.5 cm

The rectangular staple has a pointed end and a hooked rod terminal. A flat-headed nail is in situ in a nail hole near the pointed end, and there is a second, empty, nail hole near the hooked end. The stem of the nail is bent over twice. Mineral-replaced wood fragments adhere to the staple around the base of the nail, with the grain running up the long axis of the staple. These traces end before the second nail hole, 7.2 cm from the pointed end of the staple. The split spiked-loop is of normal form, with looped head and twin spiked arms. Both its arms are out-turned and broken, indicating a thickness of c. 2.5 cm for the wood to which it was fastened.

Fig. 19; Pl. 14

 

41. Hooked staple with split spiked-loop.
      G 10/87 Y 20 W (2) SF no. 87.38
      L staple 11.0 cm

The rectangular staple has a squared end and a hooked rod terminal. Near the squared end a flat-headed nail. is corroded in situ, and there is a second, but empty, nail. hole near the hooked end. Mineral-replaced wood fragments adhere to the staple around the base of the nail. They extend only c. 2.7 cm from the squared end and their grain runs across the long axis of the staple. As on no-40, therefore, it is probable that the second nail hole was unused. The split spiked-loop, of normal form, has out-turned broken arms.

Pl. 15

 

 

42. Hooked staple with split spiked-loop. Unillus.
      G 10/87 Y 20 W (2) SF no. 87.41
      L staple 10.5 cm

The sub-rectangular staple has an oblique squared end and a comparatively slender looped hook. Near the squared end a nail (now broken) is corroded in situ, and there is a second nail hole, blocked with corrosion products, near the hooked end. The spikes of the split spiked-loop are broken at the point where they are turned outwards. The gap between this point and the base of the looped head, which approximates to the thickness of the wood to which the loop was attached, is 1.6 cm

 

 

43. Hooked staple. Unillus.
      G 10/87 Y 20 W (2)
      L 12.3 cm

The sub-rectangular staple has a squared end. Its looped hook is distorted open, which is presumably why no split spiked-loop is attached (see nos.48-50). A nail, with flat rounded head and broken stem, is corroded in situ in a hole near the squared end, and there is a second hole, empty, a little past the mid-point of the staple

 

 

44. Hooked staple. Unillus.
      G 10/87 Y 20 W (2) SF no. 87.37
      L 14.9 cm

A large sub-rectangular staple, slightly tapered towards its roughly squared end, near which is a large, sub-circular, empty nail hole. A second hole, almost midway along the staple, preserves a corroded nail in situ. Recent damage has distorted the looped hook (see nos. 48-50)

 

 

45. Hooked staple. Unillus.
      G. 10/87 Y 20 W (2) SF no. 87.35
      L 12.0 cm (orig. c. 11.5 cm)

A small, slender, sub rectangular example which splays markedly towards the squared end, near which is an empty nail hole. Nearby, almost at the mid-point, is a second hole with a nail corroded in situ. Mineral-replaced wood fragments adhere to the staple around the base of the nail, their grain running with the long axis of the staple. Like no. 43,the looped hook is distorted open (see nos.48-50).

 

 

46. Hooked staple. Unillus.
      G 10/85 X 21 (1) SF no. 85.49
      L 11.5 cm

A flat, tapered strip with a crook-shaped terminal, the eye very slender. A nail is corroded in situ near the broader end, which may be broken. Probably the same type of staple as nos. 40-45.

 

 

47. Hooked staple. Unillus.
      G 10/87 Y 20 W (2)
      L 7.4 cm (broken)

A small example broken about half way along its splayed plate. One empty nail hole remains (see nos.48-50).

 

 

48-50. Three split spiked-loops. Unillus.
            G 10/87 Y 20 W (2) SF nos. 87.32 - 87.34
            L 48: 8.5 cm

All are of normal form, as no. 40. They come from the same context as hooked staples nos. 43-45 and 47, of which they may well be the second component. 48: spikes complete, slender and unbent. 49-50: spikes bent and broken.

 

 

50-56. Seven split spiked-loops. Unillus.
            G 10/79 P 16 B (4) SF no. 79.45
            G 10/80 X 18 V (3) SF no. 80.82
            G 10/84 CC 18 C (14) SF no. 84.12
            G 10/84 DD 16 D (6) SF no. 84.138
            G 10/84 CC 21 C (2) SF no. 84.252
            G 10/85 AA 22 C (2) SF no. 85.105
            G 10/87 Z 21/22 W (1)

 

 

57. Split pin.
      G 10/86 Y 21 Area S (8)
      L 8.0 cm

A small split pin, with a tiny, perforated, D-shaped plate at the head. The slender arms are formed into a circle, and the mineral replaced wood fragments adhering to their inner face show that they enclosed a circular-sectioned wooden pole c. 3 cm in diameter. Possibly some sort of suspension device.

Fig. 20

 

 

58. Split pin. Unillus.
      G 10/88 W 15 Y (4) SF no. 88.15
      L 3.7 cm

Another example, as no. 57, but broken at the divided stem. TWO more examples were found at Site VG 11 (G11, iron objects nos. 15-16 below).

 

 

59. Ring-headed spike. Unillus.
      G 10/87 AA 19/20 So R (3)
      L 8.3 cm

A slender spiked rod with a circular, collar-like head.

 

 

60. Ring-headed pin. Unillus.
      G 10/85 Y 23 V (6)
      L 6.3 cm

A small pin with spiked, rectangular-sectioned stem and rounded rectangular looped head. Perhaps a small linch pin.

 

 

61. Joiner's dog. Unillus.
      G 10/80 X 18 (1) SF no. 80.15
      L 12.5 cm

A broad U-shaped example with two short spikes. It was adapted, in antiquity, by bending one end of the bar through a right angle.

 

 

62. Drop handle. Unillus.
      G 10/84 BB 18 (6) SF no. 84.253
      L 5.6 cm (broken)

Part of a ?drop handle, of diamond-shaped cross-section, with a curled terminal loop.

 

 

63-71. Nine T-clamps. Unillus.
            G 10/80 X 18 (1) SF no. 80.16
            G 10/80 X 18 (1) SF no. 80.17
            G 10/80 X 18 H (7) SF no. 80.71
            G 10/80 X 18 L (2) SF no. 80.123
            G 10/82 U21 S (1) SF no. 82.17
            G 10/82 BB 22 B/CC 2 1 E (8)
            G 10/83 U 20 (1) SF no. 83.97
            G 10/84 W 22 Q (2) SF no. 84.170
            G 10/87 T 10 Z (2)

Normal form, with a spiked stem and two blunt arms. Various sizes. T-clamps were made in a variety of sizes and served a number of different structural uses, notably as supports, particularly for box flue tiles in the heating system of bathhouses.

 

 

72. T-nail. Unillus.
      G 10/85 Y 23 P (3)
      L 7.0 cm W head 6.8 cm

A stout T-nail or T-staple with short stem and broad head.

 










73-103. Revetment clips.
              G 10/82 W 19 (1) SF no. 82.146
              G 10/82 BB 22 B/C 22 (2) SF no. 82.260
              G 10/82 CC 22 A (2) SF no. 82.303
              G 10/83 U 20 (1) SF no. 83.14
              G 10/83 W19 Area B (4) SF no. 83.41
              G 10/83 W19 X (5)
              G 10/85 AA 22 D (2)
              G 10/85 X 21 4 (2)
              G 10/83 W 19 X (5)
              G 10/85 AA 22 D (2)
              G 10/85 X 21 4 (2)
              G 10/85 X 21 S (2)
              G 10/85 X 21 Feature 176 (2)
              G 10/85 X 21 Area S (2)
              G 10/86 X 21 Area U (2)
              G 10/86 Y 21 Area U (2)
              G 10/86 AA 22 E (5)
              G 10/86 BB 20 Area E (3)
              G 10/87 BB 21 E (2)
              G 10/87 T 18 C (1)
              G 10/87 T 18 K (1)
              G 10/87 T 18 Z wall clean up
              G 10/87 Y 20 Area N (3)
              G 10/87 Z 21/22 N (3)
              G 10/87 V 20 B (6)
              G 10/88 V 17 F (6)

31 examples of similar type, comprising a tapered rectangular sectioned rod, the broad end hammered flat with two ear-like flanges, the narrow, blunt-pointed, end bent back to a near-right angle. Their length varies between 10.3 and 17.1 cm These were clips used to secure stone revetments. The broad, flanged, end was embedded in mortar, while the angled pointed tip was engaged in a small-drilled socket in the edge of the stone panels etc. The type is known in both iron and bronze. For bronze examples see VG 10 copper alloy objects, nos.25-36, and VGII copper-alloy objects nos.12-14. For examples in both metals from Sardis see Waldbaum 1983, 66-7, PI.19, 266-77; and from Mola di Monte Gelato see Jackson in T.W Potter et al., forthcoming.

Pl. 16-20

 

 

104. Chain link. Unillus.
         G 10/86 CC 17 Area C (9)
         L 6.4 cm (orig. c. 7.0 cm)

A single, heavy oval link with indented sides, made from a rounded rectangular-sectioned rod.

 

 

105. Ring. Unillus.
         G 10/87 AA 23 C (4) SF no. 87.20Diam. 4.5 cm

A large circular example with rounded rectangular cross-section.

 

 

106. Ring. Unillus.
         G 10/84 DD 22 A (2) SF no. 84.168
         Diam. 4.3 cm

A well made ring of rounded rectangular cross-section.

 

 

107. Ring. Unillus.
         G 10/85 AA 22 C (2)
         Diam. 4.2 cm

A well made ring of rounded diamond-shaped cross-section.

 



108. Ring. Unillus.
         G 10/79 P 12 D (4) SF no. 79.33
         Diam. 4.0 cm

A square-sectioned circular ring.

 

 

109. Collar. Unillus.
         G 10/84 DD 16 C (7) SF no. 84.150
         Diam. 2.9 cm

A small stout collar, neatly made, with an expanded rim at one end.

 


110. ?Bridle bit.
         G 10/88 BB 15 A (2)
        L 7.8 cm

A rod, looped at both ends, with a series of bands around the stem, arranged as two thin bands interspersed with three wide bands. The end-loops are set in different planes, and one is broken. Possibly a link from, an ornate chain. More probably a link from a bridle bit, for it closely resembles the two links of a complete bridle bit found in the Roman fort on Waddon Hill, Dorset (Webster 1965, 147-9, Fig. 8, no. 28).

Pl. 21

 

 

111. ?Bloom or hearth base. Unillus.
         G 10/81 BB 12 Z (2) SF no. 81.57
         Diam. 10-11 cm

A thick, saucer-shaped, iron-rich mass, with a soil concretion on the convex surface. This appears to be a small hearth base with a partially reduced iron charge.

 

COPPER-ALLOY OBJECTS

1. Ladle/pan.
    G 10/88 AA 13 D (2) SF no. 88.22
    L 27.8 cm Diam. bowl 11.0 cm Depth bowl 5.0 cm

A plain, handled bowl. The handle, of rectangular cross-section is quite rudimentarily made. It tapers towards its terminal, which is of squat onion shape, with a small circular perforation punched through from top to bottom. The circular bowl, rather less than a hemisphere, has a simple thickened rim, 1.5 cm beneath which is a slender, channeled groove marking a very slight carination. Beneath this point the wall of the bowl. runs in an uninterrupted smooth curve. The handle/bowl junction is rather unusual: the sides of the bowl are pinched in so that the bowl runs up into the handle for a short distance. The object is complete, and damage is restricted to a fracture of the rim and upper wall of the bowl almost opposite the handle junction. Though the surface is lightly encrusted, it is clear that it was neither decorated nor stamped with a maker's mark. For the general form see Radnoti 1938, Taf. V, no. 24; Eggers 1951, Taf. 13, nos. 159-60; Willers 1907, 82-4, Abb.48-51.

Fig. 21; Pl. 22

 

 

2. Vessel. Unillus.
    G 10/88 AA 13 E (3)
    Diam. base 7.0 cm Max. girth body, over 20 cm

A sheet bronze vessel in shattered, corroded fragments. Only the circular base is measurable. The body defies reconstruction, but there is a lightly concave, splayed neck separated from the body by a carination. No rim fragments are preserved. Perhaps a large flagon or jar, cf. Eggers 1951, Taf. 11, no. 129; and Radnoti 1938, Taf. XIV, no. 78.

 

3. ?Vessel.
    G 10/84 DD 20 O (3) SF no. 84.79
    Diam. 32 cm W flange 2.5 cm

A flanged rim, simply made from thin sheet, broken at a carination. The underside of the outer edge retains hanuier facets from its manufacture. Flanged rim vessels of a suitable size include Radnoti 1938, Taf. XI, no. 55; and Eggers 1951, Taf. 8, nos.67-8, Taf. 9, no. 93.

Fig. 22

 

4. Balance hook.
    G 10/82 CC 22 A (2) SF no. 82.258
    Ht. 4.7 cm

A W-shaped double hook made from round-sectioned wire with spiked terminals. This is the normal form of hook used to suspend the pan at each end of the scale beam on a Roman balance (libra). Cf, e.g. Wheeler 1930, 85-6, Fig.22,2, a complete balance from London.

Pl. 23

 

 

5. Needle. Unillus.
    G 10/87 AA 19/20 R (3)
    L 12.2 cm

A circular-sectioned needle, broken across the eye. The pointed end is complete but bent.

 

 

6. ?Stylus. Unillus.
    G 10/86 EE 16 Area K (8)
    L 9.9 cm

A twisted, square-sectioned, slender rod with a wedge-shaped ?eraser at one end. The other end is broken at which point the stem is no longer twisted.

 

7. Pendant.
    G 10/83 DD 21 N (5) SF no. 83.263
    Ht. pendant 3.5 cm Diam. ring 2.2 cm

A small openwork pendant with the suspension ring still held in its swan's-neck loop. This is a plain and much devolved example of a popular type of pendant used on horse harness, usually in a military context, in the 1st cent. AD. (Oldenstein 1985. Bishop 1988). The form is based upon a stylized leaf and tendril design, often with small, pendant acorns, and the surface is frequently modeled in low relief and inlaid with tendril and grape motifs. However, the size and degree of decoration are variable, and this is a small and plain example with no surface decoration. Cf. Colchester (Hawkes and Hull 1947,339,PI.CIII,22), Hod Hill (Richmond 1968,41,Fig.31, top right), Newstead (Curle 1911,300,Pl. LXXIII,A,-1-4), and Wroxeter (Bishop 1988,145-6,Fig.44,ly).

Fig. 23

 

8. Pendant.
    G 10/87 AA 23 C (4) SF no. 87.13
    Ht. 4.1 cm

A neatly made double-pelta-shaped cavalry pendant with pelta-shaped cutouts and a simple folded suspension loop, now slightly distorted. Apart from a central recessed circle there is no sign of surface decoration, though shallow engraving could be obscured by the lightly encrusted patina. Cf. several examples, including one near-identical piece, from Baden (Unz 1972,50,57,Abb.6,58). See also Bishop 1988,145,148,Fig.44,3.

Pl. 24

 

9. Pendant.
    G 10/80 X 18 T (7) SF no. 80.86
    W 2.6 cm

A small, oval, sheet bronze pendant with openwork border, the lower part now broken. There is no further decoration, but the front surface is tinned. The suspension loop, a simple swan's neck, is a little distorted. This is an unusual form not closely paralleled among known cavalry pendants. However, a Ist cent. AD military origin is likely in view of the tinning - a feature of many Roman military copper-alloy fittings of that period.

Fig. 24; Pl. 25

 

10. Pendant.
      G 10/83 DD 19 (3) SF no. 83.204
      W 2.4 cm

A small heart-shaped pendant with plain surface. The lower part is broken, and the suspension loop, a simple rolled-over strip, has been pulled open. A simple example of a common form of cavalry pendant of 1st cent. AD to early 2nd cent AD date. Cf Vindonissa (Unz 1974,24,39,Abb.11,131).

Pl. 26

 

11. Pendant. and chain.
      G 10/87 BB 24 C (5) SF no. 87.69
      L pendant 3.6 cm Diam. links, c. 1.5 cm L suspension loop 3.2 cm

The pendant is a small, tapered circular-sectioned rod with ring moldings and a looped head. It is suspended from the lowest of five circular links. The links are made from wire, the two ends of which are twisted round the adjacent arc of the hoop in a simple decorative, but functional, manner. One of the links is broken open, and it is possible, therefore, that the chain was once longer. The chain is surmounted by a suspension device comprising a circular collar-like loop with, at right-angles, a necked spade shaped plate with a small circular perforation, in which is held the end of the chain. The object has a rather functional appearance, though no obvious use is apparent.

Pl. 27

 

 

12. Bead or ferrule. Unillus.
      G 10/85 BB 17 (4) SF no. 85.59
      L 1.8 cm Diam. 1.2 cm

A tubular, circular-sectioned collar or bead with ribbed decoration. Cf. Colchester, Sheepen (Niblett 1985,Fig.72,no. 109); and Verularrdum (Frere 1972,126,128,Fig.37,no. 94).

 

13. Lock bolt.
      G 10/87 CC 16 V (10) SF no. 85.54
      L 5.0 cm W 1.3 cm L of perforated zone 1.7 cm

A small bolt from a slide-lock. It has eleven small circular perforations, of slightly varying size, set in three rows, and arranged 4-3-4.

Pl. 28

 

14. Lock bolt.
      G 10/80 BB 12 M (3) SF no. 80.88
      L 5.5 cm W 1.3 cm L of perforated zone 1.7 cm

A small bolt from a slide lock. It has three sub-rectangular perforations - one large and two small - set in a row.

Pl. 29

 

15. Drop handle.
      G 10/87 AA 23 C (4) SF no. 87.12
      W 5.9 cm

A well made, U-shaped drop handle of normal form, with diamond shaped cross-section and looped terminals. Probably a furniture fitting, though the type was widely used, for example, as the carrying-handle on Roman helmets.

Pl. 30

 

 

16. Ring handle. Unillus.
      G 10/84 BB 23 V (3) SF no. 84.165
      Diam. 6.0 cm

About one-third of a large, neatly cut, fluted ring. Probably from a wooden casket or a bronze vessel. For the former, cf. Bushe-Fox 1928,28-32,Pl. XV,4-7, four examples in a set of box fittings in a mid-1st cent. AD context at the Roman fort of Richborough; for the latter, cf. Eggers 1951,PI.8,Type 79,PI.9,Types 84,86-87.

 

 

17. Ring handle. Unillus.
      G 10/87 Z 21/22 R (2)
      Diam. c. 6.0 cm

A large, neatly cut, fluted ring fragment, as no. 16, but larger gauge, and therefore not part of the same ring, though possibly from the same suite of fittings.

 

18. Tap/stopcock.
      G 10/85 BB 18 T (6) SF no. 85.25
      L 7.7 cm Diam. 1.7 cm

A stout circular-sectioned tube, open at the base, with a rectangular projection above a discoidal flange at the top. There is a rectangular slot in the projection, with the remains of a circular iron ring in situ. Two holes pierce the tube at about its mid-point. They are on opposite sides of the tube, are approximately circular, and one is a little larger than the other. This is the 'male' component of a hydraulic valve for controlling the flow of piped water. By turning the tube, with the iron ring handle, through 90 degrees the. two holes could be brought in line with two pipes flanking the valve casing ('female' component), thus allowing water to pass through. A further turn of 90 degrees would close the aperture and stop the flow, while lesser turns would produce a partial flow. Such valves are known at a number of sites, notably those around the Bay of Naples. A 'male' component of virtually identical form to the present example, though rather larger, may be seen in its operative position in a complete stopcock from Pompeii (dell'orto and Varone 1990, 162-3, no. 50), which must date to the very end of the 1st cent. BC or the 1st cent. AD, i.e. between the completion of the Augustan aqueduct and the eruption of AD 79. There is another example, from Torre Annunziata, in a tap still in place at the end of a length of lead piping (Walters 1899,332, no-2577). See also Eschebach 1979. The presence of this piece of hydraulic equipment at VG 10 implies the existence there of a piped supply of running water.

Pl. 31

 

19. Stud.
      G 10/89 U 15 No. E (4) SF no. 89.34
      Diam. 5.2 cm

A large domed boss with an iron spike. The deeply molded exterior has a marked rim and a prominent central prong. Function uncertain, but possibly a decorative door stud.

Fig. 25

 

20. Stud.
      G 10/87 AA 23 C (4) SF no. 87.23
      L 3.0 cm Diam. 2.2 cm

A decorative stud with a discoidal head and rectangular-sectioned spike. The head has engraved, concentric circle ornament.

Fig. 26

 

 

21. ?Stud. Unillus.
      G 10/80 BB 9 G (2) SF no. 80.92
      L 2.9 cm Diam. 2.0 cm

A disc-headed stud with slender, ornately faceted stem. The bent head has engraved concentric circle ornament on its underside.

 

 

22. ?Stud. Unillus.
      G 10/89 U 15 So. E (4)
      Diam. 2.0 cm

Another example, as no. 21. Stem broken.

 

 

23. Stud. Unillus.
      G 10/85 23 P (6)
      Diam. 1.5 cm

A small disc-headed stud, stem bent.

 

24. Pin.
      G 10/87 T 18 X (B) SF no. 87.41
      L 5.1 cm

A small pin, with a tapered, circular-sectioned, blunt-ended stem, and a slightly dished, onion-shaped, centrally perforated plate at the head. The plate edges are rather ragged, and the pin has the appearance of a functional object rather than a decorative item. Perhaps a small securing pin.

Fig. 27

 

 

25-36. Revetment clips. Unillus.
            G 10/84 CC 17 C (7) SF no. 84.109
            G 10/82 DD 22 X (2) SF no. 82.259
            G 10/88 V17 (2) SF no. 88.16
            G 10/85 Y 23 W (5) SF no. 82.72
            G 10/82 W18 B (3)
            G 10/82 CC22 B (1) SF no. 82.249
            G 10/89 W 20 L feature O 34 (10)
            G 10/85 CC16 W (8)
            G 10/87 T 18 Z (5)
            G 10/83 W 19 B (5) SF no. 83.219
            G 10/80 X18 H (7) SF no. 80.84
            G 10/80 X 18 H (7) SF no. 80.83

12 examples of similar type comprising a rectangular-sectioned rod, with one end hanriered out into two ear-like flanges, and the other end tapered, and blunt-pointed, and turned back to a near right angle. The three complete examples measure 10.9, 13.1, and 14.4 cm long, but there are broken examples in excess of 15 cm Thus the length range is likely to be similar to that of the iron examples - see VG 10 iron objects, nos. 73-103 for a discussion of the type, with references; and see VG 11 copper-alloy objects nos. 12-14 for further examples.

 

37. ?Harness fitting.
      G 10/88 W 15 Area B (4) SF no. 88.7
      L 3.9 cm

A heavy, cast, spectacle-shaped object comprising two rings separated by a group of three projecting tapered prongs, their bases set in an equilateral triangle, their tips slightly turned in. One ring has a molded projection on its rim. The other is distorted and broken at that point. This is an example of a well-known, though ill-understood, type of object. Found throughout much of the ancient world - in Italy, Greece, Magna Graecia and Gaul - examples are known in contexts as early as the 5th century BC. Some have been identified as knuckle-dusters, bow pullers or horse-breakers, but. generally they are regarded as items of horse harness. Despite their robustness they are frequently distorted or broken suggesting heavy, stressful usage. See Romualdi 1989, 131 , no .155; and Jacobi 1974, 200, 307, Taf .53 no. 818, from Manching

Fig. 28; Pl. 32

 

38. Terminal.
      G 10/83 DD 16 (1) SF no. 83.36
      H. 2.7 cm W 3.5 cm

A bifurcated rod with crescentic arms (tip of one broken) surmounting a small ovoid plate. Quite rudimentarily made. Function uncertain.

Pl. 33

 

 

39. Rod. Unillus.
      G 10/85 BB 18 A C (5) SF no. 85.78
      L 3.2 cm Th. 0.7 cm

A slender, candy-twisted rod, broken at both ends. Function uncertain.

 

 

40. ?Lid. Unillus.
      G 10/88 AA 13 D (4)
      Diam. 3.5 cm

A small, circular, lightly dished sheet metal lid or base. It has flanged sides and a tiny, roughly punched central perforation and concentric circle engraved decoration.

 

 

41. Disc. Unillus.
      G 10/82 W 18 (1) SF no. 82.97
      Diam. 4.3 cm

A thin, sheet metal disc with roughly perforated center and concentric ring moldings. Function uncertain.

 

 

42. Statue fragments.
      G 10/82 DD 19 East (1) SF no. 82.269
      L 5.5 cm

Three joining fragments of a flattish sheet of varying thickness - 1-3 m. It is gilded on one face, with black streaks, which may be painted/inlaid/reserved decoration. The fragment has the appearance of drapery. Possibly statuary.

 

43. Earring.
      G 10/78 Q 15/B/Q 16 (4) B Sk. 13 SF no. 78.20
      Diam. 3.5 cm

A circular ring, now broken and a little distorted, of thin oval cross-section. At one side is a projecting decorative strip comprising a pair of molded loops with a tiny link passing through each. Whatever hung from these has broken away. For the type in precious metal see Marshall 1911, Pl. LIV, nos.2581-2, 2587; Pl. LV, nos.2681-2.

Fig. 29

 

44. ?Earring.
      G 10/78 Q 15/B/Q 16 (4) B SK. 13 SF no. 78.20

Two elliptical fragments of wire, one of square cross-section, the other of round cross-section. Similar proportions to no. 43.

Fig. 30

 

45. Earring.
      G 10/78 O 12 (4) C. Assoc with SK. 5 SF no. 78.15
      L 3.4 cm

A round-sectioned wire ring of ovoid shape., probably a distorted circle. A tiny decorative collar is fastened to one section. Cf, e.g., Marshall 1911, PI.LV, no. 2691; and Crummy 1983, 50, Fig.53, no. 1798, a pair from Colchester, found with a 3rd-4 cent AD inhumation.

Fig. 31

 

46. Finger ring.
      G 10/78 Q 15 B Q 16 (4) B Sk. 12 SF no. 78.18
      Diam. ext.1.8 cm; int. 1.65 cm

A very thin plain ring of oval cross-section.

Fig. 32

 

LEAD OBJECTS

 

1. Water pipe. Unillus.
    G 10/85 BB 18 A C (6) SF no. 85.72
    Diam. , external c.7 cm Wall th. c. 0.5 cm

A short section, cut up for scrap and crushed.

 

 

2. Water pipe. Unillus.
    G 10/80 X 18 B (5) SF no. 80.61
    Diam. , external, c. 4.5 cm

A short section, cut and badly distorted.

 

 

3. Water pipe. Unillus.
    G 10/84 W 21 B (6) SF no. 84.53

A cut and distorted fused seam fragment.

 

4. Door pivot.
    G 10/80 X 18 S (6) SF no. 80.60

A composite fitting, comprising a copper-alloy pivot block in a lead setting. The pivot block is rectangular, 6.1 x 5.7 x 1.1 cm, with a turned circular recess for a doorpost 4.0 cm in diameter. The lead setting is an irregular rectangle, c. 9.3 cm square, with a rectangular recess for the pivot block. Cf, e.g. Ulbert 1969, 52, Abb.5, no. 4, from Rheingöbnheim. Examples may be seen in situ in houses at Pompeii and Herculaneum. See also an example in iron, VG 10 iron objects, no. 34.

Fig. 33

 

 

5. Door pivot. Unillus.
    G 10/87 X 21 L (2)

The lead setting for a copper-alloy door pivot, as no. 4, but with an extension to one side. L 15.5 cm (broken). Recess, 7.4 cm square. Extension, L c. 9.5 cm

 

 

6. ?Door pivot. Unillus.
    G 10/84 X 18 L SF no. 84.164
    Diam. 5.1 cm

A plain, flat disc, possibly from a door pivot.

 

 

7. Weight/fly-wheel. Unillus.
    G 10/81 BB 12 (1) SF no. 81.13

A thick disc with central circular perforation.

 

 

8. Scrap. Unillus.
    G 10/88 AA 13 E (4)

A large, semi-coalesced mass of lead scrap and fragments.

 

 

Via Gabina, Villa Site 11

IRON OBJECTS

1. Stone lever/stone breaker.
    G 11/76 F 20 D SF no. 76.45
    L 111.8 cm Wt c. 7 kg.

A long, heavy, tapered bar of octagonal cross-section. At the narrow end is a carefully formed lightly domed head. At the broad end the bar terminates in a large, thick rectangular-sectioned, flame-shaped spatula, the rounded tip of which is slightly burred. The bar is slightly bent. Greek and Roman masonry buildings were usually constructed with simple equipment. Though lifting machinery and pulleys were used much of the work and all of the fine adjustment to the positioning of ashlar blocks would have been accomplished with levers like this one. However, Roman tools were often dual-purpose and a stone-breaking function is also conceivable. The burring of the tip would be consistent with the latter use, while the slight bowing of the shaft would be a likely consequence of levering. This is a most unusual find but it is paralleled by two closely similar, though slightly less well-preserved examples from Pompeii (Gaitzsch 1980, 359, Taf. 32, nos.154 and 155).

Fig. 1

 

2. Ploughshare.
    G 11/76 F 20 B (3) SF no. 76.38
    Wt c. 5.5 kg

A massive, strongly tapered, open socket of C-shaped cross-section, terminating in a tapered, rectangular-sectioned bar, proportionately small, which is curved towards the damaged tip. The socket mouth has two lug-like projections, both intact and square-ended. Ancient ploughs, more correctly ards, were made mainly of wood and have been preserved only very rarely under exceptional conditions. Their metal parts, though having a better chance of survival, are still rare finds, and the present share is a very welcome addition to the restricted number of known examples. It is also one of the most massive. Under normal circumstances such a large piece of iron, if no longer serviceable as an implement, would have been reforged, and we are fortunate that, for whatever reason, this share was overlooked. It conforms generally to the known types of Roman share which usually have a bar-shaped, sub-triangular or arrow shaped tip (see e.g. Manning 1964. White 1967,123-145). However, the socket is much more substantial than the tang or low-flanged mouth usually encountered. Amongst the few parallels is a share from Pompeii with a socket of the same form and dimensions, though with an arrow-shaped tip (White 1967,135,190,Fig.110a); and the arrow-share on a well-known copper-alloy model of a beam-ard from Cologne, which is of the same proportions and elongated triangular form, but which has a tang in place of the socket (Manning1964,57,PI.VIII,1.). L 50.2 cm Max.W socket, 12.6 cm

Fig. 2; Pl. 1

 

3. Reap hook/pruning hook.
    G 11/76 F 20 B (3) SF no. 76.36
    L 22.1 cm Wt c. 130 gm.

A hooked blade with rectangular handle plate. The blade is a well made, tapered hook with a lightly lenticular cross-section. Its cutting edge is on the inner (concave) side only. The handle plate is pierced by two square-sectioned rivets. Both have simple, expanded, domed square heads. The more complete rivet is 2.8 cm long. As the handle plate. is the same width it may be assumed that the handle was of circular cross-section, 2.8 cm in diameter. Mineral-replaced organic remains, which ran the full length of the handle plate, demonstrate that the material was wood. Hooked blades were common and versatile agricultural implements which served a wide range of functions. A hook of this size might have been used for reaping or hedging as well as in viticulture. For a discussion of the type see Manning 1985, 53-8.

Fig. 3; Pl. 2

 

4. ?Adze-blade/chisel-blade.
    G 11/78 K 22 A (3) SF no. 78.62
    L 6.7 cm W cutting edge, c. 4.8 cm

A flat trapezoidal blade of rectangular cross-section. It is broken at the narrow end, beyond which it splays to a broad cutting-edge, now damaged. Perhaps the blade from a light adze or Axe or broad-bladed chisel.

Fig. 4

 

 

5. Stylus. Unillus.
    G 11/77 K 21 B K 22 (2)
    L 6.8 cm

A slender stylus with elegant, circular-sectioned stem, apparently undecorated. The eraser is of slender wedge-shaped form; the writing tip is broken.

 

 

6. ?Vessel fragment. Unillus.
    G 11/76 G 22 S G (4)
    L 5.0 cm Th. c. 0.1 cm

A fragment of thin iron sheet with only one possible unbroken edge. With its light curvature this may be a wall fragment from a bowl or a similar sheet metal vessel.

 

 

7. ?Buckle frame. Unillus.
    G 11/77 K 19 S E (3)
    L 4.6 cm

A small diamond-sectioned rod, each end of which is turned back at right angles and broken. Possibly part of a buckle frame; or perhaps a fragmentary joiner's dog.

 

8. ?Bell-clapper or ?plumb bob.
    G 11/77 I 22 (1)
    L 11.7 cm

A heavy, circular-sectioned, torpedo-shaped object with a broken suspension loop at the narrow end.

Fig. 5

 

 

9. Key. Unillus.
    G 11/77 I 19 C (3) SF no. 77.57
    L 11.2 cm L teeth 3.5 cm

A slide key, with the teeth set on an elliptical (C-shaped) bit. There are three teeth, of rounded rectangular cross-section, one of which is complete. The tapered handle has a rounded rectangular cross-section and terminates in a large, circular, collar-like suspension loop.

 

 

10. Key. Unillus.
      G 11/80 (1) SF no. 80.9
      L 4.7 cm (Orig. c. 5.5 cm) Bit: 2.1 cm x 1.1 cm x 0.7 cm

A small slide key with the teeth cut into a wedge-shaped, rectangular-sectioned bit. Heavy corrosion obscures details of the teeth. The tapered, rectangular-sectioned handle terminates in a proportionately large, collar-like suspension loop, the upper half now broken.

 

 

11. Door stud. Unillus.
      G 11/78 K 18 B K 19 (1)
      L 3.0 cm Head: 2.5 cm x 2.5 cm x 1.1 cm

A small, heavy-headed nail. The square-sectioned shank is short and tapers abruptly to a point, giving it a pyramidal appearance. The head is very thick, of sub-rectangular shape, with an irregular, lightly domed surface.

 

 

12. Washer. Unillus.
      G 11/77 I 22 A (2)
      L 4.3 cm

A lightly domed, bow-tie-shaped washer. Its central perforation has a collar-like projection on the convex face. Possibly a decorative washer for a door stud.

 

 

13. Decorative fitting.Unillus.
      G 11/78 J 20 S (2) SF no. 78.54
      L c. 8.4 cm L arms (orig. ) 6 cm

A finely-made, decorative T-shaped strip, now distorted and partly broken. The lower part of the main vertical stem is of tapered spatulate form, with a low plano-convex cross-section. It is surmounted by two slender vase-shaped units, the uppermost of which terminates in a denticulate plate from which two horizontal arms project. one arm is broken; the other, which is bent back on itself, is slender, of plano-convex cross-section, with a tapered, rounded end.

 

 

14. Split spiked-loop. Unillus.
      G 11/79 H 17 B (3) SF no. 79.53
      L 6.7 cm

A slender distorted example with rounded rectangular-sectioned ring-head and slender, flat rectangular-sectioned arms, the spiked tips now missing.

 

 

15. Split pin. Unillus.
      G 11/78 J 20 S (2) SF no. 78.52
      L 4.7 cm

A small split pin, with a tiny, perforated, D-shaped plate at the head, now slightly damaged. The slender arms are broken at the point where they splay outwards. Cf. Site VG 10, iron objects nos. 57-58.

 

 

16. Split pin. Unillus.
      G 11/77 J 20 (3)
      L 5.5 cm

Another example, as no. 15.

 

 

17. ?Wall hook or ?cramp. Unillus.
      G 11/79 K 19 B (4) SF no. 79.86
      L 15.1 cm

An L-shaped object made from a rectangular-sectioned bar. The longer am has a spiked terminal which is bent, probably through being hammered into position. The shorter arm, which appears to be complete, has a blunt end, also slightly bent. Probably a large wall hook or a cramp for securing box-flue tiles etc.

 

 

18. ?Wall hook. Unillus.
      G 11/78 K 23 B K 23
      L 9.5 cm

An L-shaped, spiked rod, probably a simple wall hook.

 

 

19. ?Wall hook. Unillus.
      G 11/78 K 23 B K 23
      L 5.5 cm

As no. 18 but smaller.

 

 

20. Chain link. Unillus.
      G 11/78 J 19 C (7)
      L 11.5 cm (orig. c.17 cm)

A looped rod of diamond-shaped cross-section, broken at one end. Probably originally a double-looped link from a large chain. There is wear consistent with such use on the inside of the remaining eye.

 

 

21. Ring/link. Unillus.
      G 11/79 H 14 C (4) SF no. 79.63
      L 4.6 cm

A pear-shaped ring, possibly a distorted oval, with traces of heavy wear on the inside.

 

 

22. Ring/link. Unillus.
      G 11/77 H 18 A (4)
      L 3.8 cm

A broken ring or link, now U-shaped, of rounded rectangular cross-section.

 

 

23. Ring. Unillus.
      G 11/77 K 19 N (2) SF no. 77.15
      Diam. 4.1 cm

A circular example, neatly made.

 

 

24. Ring. Unillus.
      G 11/79 K 18 D (4) SF no. 79.70
      Diam. 3.7 cm

A small circular ring, worn.

 

 

25. Ring. Unillus.
      G 11/77 Unstrat.
      Diam. 3.3 cm

A small circular ring with heavy wear on the inner face.

 

 

26. Ring. Unillus.
      G 11/77 H 18 (1) SF no. 77.1
      Diam. 3.3 cm - 3.5 cm

A small circular ring with rounded rectangular cross-section.

 

 

27. Plate. Unillus.
      G 11/78 L 22 (4) A SF no. 78.59
      L 5.2 cm W 3.0 cm Th. c. 0.25 cm

A small rectangular plate, apparently complete, with lightly rounded corners. No nail holes are visible. Function indeterminate.

 

 

28. Binding. Unillus.
      G 11/77 H 18 C (4)
      L 6.4 cm W c. 2.5 cm Th. c. 0.1 cm

A fragmentary binding made from thin parallel-sided sheet. The cross-section is lightly plano-convex, and there is a nail hole near the center.

 

 

Not for report, for info/ archive only

G 11/77 K18 S W (4) Looped terminal

G 11/80 K 16 (1) SF no. 80.4 Bar frag.

G 11/77 I 24 N C (3) Unidentified frag.

G 11/80 (1) SF no. 80.10 Modern Allen key

G 11/76 G 22 S N E (1) Modern horseshoe

G 11/76 H 21 B H 22 (1) Modern ox-shoe

G 11/76 H 19 R E (1) Modern link

G 11/76 F 21 W (1) SF no. 76.16 Modern chain link

G 11/76 F 21 (1) SF no. 76.17 Modern shrapnel frag.

 

COPPER-ALLOY OBJECTS

1. Jug handle.
    G 11/77 J 20 (3) SF no. 77.20
    L 11.1 cm (orig. c. 11.8 cm) Diam. vessel rim 15.5 cm

Upper handle fragment, from a large wide-mouthed jug, comprising a plain projecting thumb-stop flanked by two curving, tapered arms with simple everted moulding. This is probably a highly-devolved version of the motif commonly employed on this type of handle, which shows, on each side, the head of a long-beaked water bird issuing from a bunch of leaves. The slotted inner face of the arms ensured the handle had a secure fastening on the flanged rim of the jug. Cf. Eggers 1951 Taf. 11, nos. 122-3; den Boesterd 1956, 75-6, Pl. XI, no. 273; also Curle 1911, 275-6, Pls. LV, LVI, from Newstead. For a still more simplified form from a 1st cent. AD context at Cirencester see Wacher and McWhirr 1982, 93, 95, Fig.27, no. 30.

Fig. 6; Pl. 3

 

2. Model hammer.
    G 11/79 H 14 East B (3) SF no. 79.22
    L 4.8 cm L hammer head 2.0 cm

The haft, long and slender, is circular-sectioned. It is broken and slightly bent. The head, set a little obliquely to the haft, is in the form of a blacksmith's cross-pene hanrier, with one square face and one chisel face. Miniature tools were a standard class of Roman votive. For a very similar, though rather larger, example from Corfu see Walters, 1899, 358, no. 2977; for examples in groups of models from two graves in Cologne see Geimnia 0-3, 1939, 56, Taf. 1 and 4; and for a discussion of the significance of the model groups see Manning 1966. The Rhenish grave groups date from the late 2nd to late 4th century AD. Alternatively, the present example may have been part of a figurine (e.g. attribute of Vulcan or Mars), or, perhaps, simply a decorative pin.

Fig. 7; Pl. 4

 

3. Tweezers.
    G 11/77 L 18 (1) SF no. 77.8
    L 9.7 cm

A large, well made, ornate tweezers, complete, but with distorted jaws. The simple folded spring is a broad inverted triangle with elegantly hollowed sides and beveled edges. The grip is a rectangular plate divided from the spring zone by a grooved and channeled moulding. The jaws, of plano-convex cross-section taper evenly from the grip to their blunt-nosed tip. Their inner face is flat with no rifled facetting. Though similar to surgical examples (see, eg. Jackson 1986, 122 Fig.12, 137-8) this is more probably a toilet than a medical implement.

Fig. 8

 

 

4. Needle. Unillus.
    G 11/80 J 15 A SF no. 80.11
    L 14.4 cm

Complete in two joining fragments. Normal form with circular sectioned stem and slender slit eye in a blunt-ended spatulate head.

 

 

5. Buckle pin. Unillus.
    G 11/77 J 23 B K 23 (3) SF no. 77.71
    L 2.8 cm

A small example, the loop intact, but the end of the rectangular sectioned tongue broken.

 

6. Lock bolt.
    G 11/78 J 20 So. SF no. 78.41
    L 8.0 cm W 1.7 cm L of perforated zone 1.9 cm

Bolt from a slide lock. There are five perforations set in a triangular arrangement of three sub-circular holes flanked by two sub-rectangular slots. Their irregular appearance gives the impression that they were re-cut, presumably in order to change the lock.

Pl. 5

 

 

7. Stud. Unillus.
    G 11/79 J 17 B K 17 B (2) SF no. 79.92
    Diam. 2.5 cm

A disc-headed stud, the stem broken very close to the head. The head has a neatly turned rim and inner grooved ring.

 

 

8. Stud. Unillus.
    G 11/80 J 15 B (3) SF no. 80.6
    L 3.2 cm Diam. 1.6 cm

A low-domed stud or tack. The plain, round, hollow-domed head surmounts a thin rectangular-sectioned stem.

 

 

9. Stud. Unillus.
    G 11/77 G 19 B (4)
    Diam. 1.6 cm

Another example as no. 8, but the stem broken.

 

 

10. Stud. Unillus.
      G 11/79 K 18 D (4) SF no. 79.90
      Diam. 2.3 cm Ht. 1.6 cm

A rounded hollow cone. Iron corrosion inside is probably the remains of an iron nail of which this was the decorative cap.

 

 

11. Ring. Unillus.
      G 11/77 K 20 E B (4) SF no. 77.53
      Diam 3.6 cm

A circular ring, part broken, of flat rectangular cross-section. Function indeterminate.

 

12-14. Revetment clips.
            G 11/77 J 18 S (1) SF no. 77.13
            G 11/78 J 19 B (4) SF no. 78.24
            G 11/79 K 19 B (4) SF no. 79.86

3 examples of similar-type comprising a rectangular or rounded rectangular-sectioned rod with one end hammered out into two earlike flanges, and the other end tapered and blunt-pointed, and turned back to a near right-angle. The two complete examples measure 12.8 cm and 10.8 cm
See site VG 10copper-alloy objects, nos. 25-36, for further examples; and see site VG 10 iron objects, nos. 73-103 for a discussion of the type, with references.

Fig. 9

 

LEAD OBJECTS

 

1. Water pipe. Unillus.
    G 11/77 I 18 E A (4) SF no. 77.62
    c. 7.0 cm x 4.2 cm external

A short section, cut and distorted. Now sub-oval in cross-section, it was probably originally circular.

 

2. Dolium clamps.
    G 11/76 H 22 A (2)

A large number of complete and fragmentary examples of these repair clamps were found in this context. Most are cruciform or anthropomorphic, with splayed terminals which improved the security of the repair. The majority are plain, with file/rasp marks, but some have an impressed design on one face, the most ornate of which is a 'shoaling bow-tie' motif.

Pl. 6

 

SILVER OBJECTS

1. Disc.
    G 11/77 K 23 B (3) SF no 77.487
    Diam. 3.5 cm

A very lightly domed circular disc with pricked center-point, plain inner zone, and triple-grooved rim. There is no sign of solder or other joining media on the plain flat underside. However, encrusted corrosion may have obscured this. Function, other than decoration, uncertain. Perhaps a boss from a vessel interior?

Fig. 10

 


References

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den Boestezd 1956 M. H. P. den Boesterd, Rijksmuseum G.M. Kam 5, the bronze vessels (Nijmegen, 1956).

Bushe-Fox 1928 J.P. Bushe-Fox, Second report on the excavations of the Roman fort at Richborough, Kent. Research report of the Society of Antiquaries VII (Oxford, 1928).

Crummy 1983 N. Crummy, Colchester archaeological report II: the Roman small finds from excavations in Colchester 1971-9 (Colchester, 1983).

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Eggers 1951 H. J. Eggers, Der romische Import is freien Gezmanien (Hamburg, 1951).

Eschebach 1979 H. Eschebach, 'Die Gebrauchs-wasserversorgung des antiken Pompeii', Antike Welt 10.2 (1979), 3-24.

Frere 1972 S. Frere, Verulamium excavations I: Research report of the Society of Antiquaries XXVIII (Oxford, 1972).

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Manning 1964 W. H. Manning, 'The plough in Roman Britain', Journal of Romn Studies 54 (1964), 54-65.

Manning 1966 W. H. Manning, 'A group of bronze models from Sussex in the British Museum', Antiquaries Journal 46, (1966), 50-59.

Manning 1985 W. H. Manning, Catalogue of the Romno-British iron tools, fittings and weapons in the British Museum (London, 1985).

Marshall 1911 F.H. Marshall, Catalogue of the jewelry, Greek, Etruscan and Romn, in the Departments of Antiquities, British Museum, (London, 1911).

Niblett 1985 R. Niblett, Sheepen: an early Romn industrial site at Camulodunum, CBA Research Report No. 57 (London, 1985).

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Unz 1974 C. Unz, 'R6mische Funde aus Windisch in ehemaligen kantonalen Antiquarium Aarau', Jahresbericht der Gesellschaft pro Vindonissa 1973 (1974), 11-42.

Wacher and McWhirr 1982 J.S. Wacher and A.D. McWhirr, Early Roman occupation at Cirencester, Cirencester excavations I (Cirencester, 1982).

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Walters 1899 H.B. Walters, Catalogue of the bronzes, Greek, Roman and Etruscan in the Departrkent of Greek and Roman Antiquities, British Miseum, (London, 1899).

Webster 1965 G. Webster, 'Further investigations on the site of the Roman fort at Waddon Hill, Stoke Abbott, 1960-62', Proceedings of the Dorset Natural History and Archaeological Society 86, 1964 (1965), y135-49.

Wheeler 1930 R.E.M. Wheeler, London in Roman times (London, 1930).

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All text and images copyright © 2002 by Walter Widrig and Rice University. Last updated June 2005 by dmc-info@rice.edu.