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Introduction

References

Via Gabina, Site 10 Villa

I. Lamps

II. Terracottas

III. Architectural Terracottas

IV. Contexts of Lamps and Terracottas


Via Gabina, Site 11 Villa

I. Lamps

II. Contexts of Lamps


Inscriptions and Marks

I. Maker Names

II. Maker Initials

III. Maker Stamps

IV. Mouldmarks

 

Introduction

Via Gabina, Site 10 Villa

Some eight hundred and nine lamps and lamp fragments were found during the excavations in the Roman villa designated Via Gabina 10. Of these only one was an import from outside Italy, a Corinthian lamp of the mid-second to mid-third century AD (Lamp 187). Two others (93-4) came from the Po valley, but all the rest were very likely to have been made in Rome or its immediate neighbourhood.

The lamps in the catalogue are divided for convenience into 17 groups, mainly based on types. The typologies used are various, most lamps falling into one or other of those devised by Heinrich Dressel (1899), Siegfried Loeschcke (1919), Oscar Broneer (1930) and Donald Bailey (1980): there is no point in producing a new typology for the Via Gabina lamps. The long-lived Loeschcke Type VIII, group 16, is divided into sub-groups. It has not always been possible to accurately place some fragments within the volute-lamp sequence, groups 3-7. Eight of the lamps are wheelmade (group 1) and the remainder were manufactured from moulds. The Shoulder-forms quoted in the catalogue entries are those of Loeschcke 1919, p. 25.

The groups can be tabulated as follows:

Description Number Catalogue Approx. Date
1 'Esquiline' lamps 8 1-8 c. 180-50 BC
2 Dressel Types 1-4 70 9-31 c. 70 BC - AD 15
3 Loeschcke Type I 71 32-41 Augustan-Tiberian
5 Loeschcke Type IV 102 42-52 Tiberian-Trajanic
6 Broneer Type XXI 67 53-59 Augustan-Trajanic
7 Loeschcke Type V 7 60-64 Neronian-Trajanic
8 Stamped bases 5 65-69 Neronian-Trajanic
9 Bailey Type F 2 70 Augustan-Tiberian
10 Bailey Type I 1 71 Flavian
11 Bailey Type J 10 72-73 Flavian-Hadrianic
12 Bailey Type G 10 74-79 Neronian-Trajanic
13 Bailey Type H 4 - Neronian-Trajanic
14 Late Vogelkopflampen 15 80-85 Mid-Flavian-Antonine
15 Central Italian 13 86-92 Flavian-early Trajanic Firmalampen
16 North Italian 2 93-94 Trajanic-early Hadrianic Firmalampen
16a Loeschcke Type VIII 38 95-121 Neronian-Trajanic
16b Loeschcke Type VIII 250 122-148 Late Flavian to mid-Antonine
16c Loeschcke Type VIII 34 149-156 Early Antonine-early Severan
16d Loeschcke Type VIII 25 157-163 Early Antonine-late Severan
16e Loeschcke Type VIII 64 164-186 Late Antonine to mid-third century
17 Broneer Type XXVIIC 1 187 Mid-Antonine to mid-third century

In general (and bearing in mind that there are overlaps) 78 lamps were found that relate to the villa's existence from about 180 BC until the end of the reign of Augustus (but nothing need be as early as the second century BC and most are 70 BC or later); the first century AD has yielded some 306 lamps; the late first century to the late second century has produced almost as many, 291 lamps; and 134 lamps are of the mid-second century to the mid-third century: many of these 134 are probably early rather than late. Thus, a few lamps were used during the century starting about 180 BC, but there is high lamp-usage from about 70 BC and especially so during the entire first and second centuries AD, less so in the first half of the third century and nothing was found that is later than about AD 250.

All the terracottas catalogued here came from Via Gabina 10 and none from Via Gabina 11. Mostly very fragmentary, they include a few figurines of men and women, a dramatic mask, an eye, possibly votive, a small head, possibly Bacchic, and parts of a money-box and a feeding-bottle. The feeding-bottle is late Republican or Augustan, but the other objects are not easily datable, although none is likely to be later than about AD 150. Also included are a few architectural terracottas, none of which can be dated.

Via Gabina, Site 11 Villa

Considerably fewer lamps came from Via Gabina 11 than from Via Gabina 10 and they were much more fragmentary: no complete or almost complete lamps were found. One hundred and twenty-one fragments are included in the catalogue. There are no imports and all are likely to be central Italian, from Rome or its vicinity. They are, as for Via Gabina 10, divided into convenient groups, by typology and chronology, which can tabulated as follows:

Description Number Catalogue Approx. Date
1 'Esquiline' lamps 6 1-3 180-50 BC
2 Misc. mouldmade 1 4 First century BC
3 Dressel Type 2 7 5-11 70 BC-AD 15
4 Dressel Type 3 7 12-17 70 BC-AD 15
5 Dressel Type 4 3 18 50 BC-AD 15
6 Loeschcke Type I 11 - Augustan-Trajanic
7 Loeschcke Type IV 23 19-30 Tiberian-Trajanic or Broneer Type XXI
8 Bailey Type G 1 31 Neronian-Trajanic
9 Central Italian 7 32-37 Trajanic-?early Severan Firmalampen
10 Late Vogelkopflampen 11 38-40 Mid-Flavian to Antonine
11 Loeschcke Type VIII
early 9 41-49 Neronian-Trajanic
Standard Italian 32 50-52 Late Flavian to mid-Antonine
Misc. 2 53-54 Mid-Antonine
12 Lamp-lid 1 55 Flavian to mid-Antonine

Twenty-four lamps relate to the first two centuries of the villa's existence (although the lamps do not necessarily provide evidence for the second century BC), but most of these belong to the period from about 70 BC to the end of the reign of Augustus. The first century to the early second produced some forty-four lamps and fifty-three lamps are of the second century AD: there are overlaps with both these figures. Nothing need be later than about AD 190.

This report on the lamps from Villas 10 and 11 on the Via Gabina and on the terracottas from Villa 10 was written and submitted in November 1993: no updating has been attempted.



Via Gabina, Site 10 Villa: The Lamps



WHEELMADE LAMPS

'Esquiline' Lamps

The eight lamps in this group, with their splayed nozzles, deep bodies, applied handles and turned bases, although not sharply carinated, fall into Pavolini's tipo biconico 'dell'Esquilino', which probably started production at Rome in the third century BC, but whose main date-range is between about 180 and 50 BC (Pavolini 1981, pp 144-9). The fabrics vary from buff to pink to red, except for 8, which has been fired in a reducing atmosphere and is grey. All except 7 are coated with a black glaze; where the base survives it is reserved. The nozzle fragment 7 differs from the others in that the fabric is noticeably micaceous and it has no glaze; it is also stamped with the letter S.

 

image from lamps report

1. G 10/87 Y 21 N (2) SF no. 87.29
     L 5.4 cm

Nozzle, body and base fr. Splayed nozzle. Buff clay; black glaze overall, except on base; runs inside.

Fig. 1; Pl. 1

 

image from lamps report

2. Number lost.
     L 6.3 cm

Nozzle, body and base fr. Splayed nozzle. Pink clay; black glaze overall, except on base; runs under base.

Fig. 2; Pl. 2

 

image from lamps report

3. G 10/80 2818 E (18) CUN 183
     L 5.1 cm

Nozzle fr., near last. Pinkish-buff clay; black glaze overall, with runs inside.

Pl. 3

 

image from lamps report

4. G 10/84 W 20 N (12) SF no. 84.20
     L 3.8 cm

Rear body fr., with part of applied handle. Pink clay; black glaze on exterior.

Pl. 4

 

image from lamps report

image from lamps report

5. G 10/89 U 15 North E (3)
     L 2.5 cm

Body and rim fr., with spring of nozzle. Pink clay; black glaze on exterior, with runs inside.

Fig. 3; Pl. 5

 

image from lamps report

image from lamps report

6. G 10/87 T18 C (1)
     L 3.9 cm

Upper body and rim fr. Pink clay; black glaze on exterior, with runs inside.

Fig. 4; Pl. 6

 

image from lamps report

image from lamps report

7. G 10/87 Z21-22 R (4)
     L 4.2 cm

Nozzle fr., splayed; relief S within circular stamp on top behind wick-hole. Micaceous red clay; unslipped.

Fig. 5; Pl. 7

 

image from lamps report

8. G 10/87 Z21-22 R (3)(4)
     W 3.0 cm

Nozzle fr. with a rounded tip. Grey clay; gray-black glaze overall.

Pl. 8

 

MOULDMADE LAMPS

Dressel Types 1 to 4 and Variants

Amongst the earliest mouldmade lamps produced in central Italy are those classified by Dressel (1899) as his Types 1 to 4, most of which have characteristics of earlier wheelmade lamps from the same area, such as splayed nozzles and applied handles. Only one fragment (9) of a Dressel Type 1 lamp was found: these often have two or even more rounded nozzles and, unlike the bulk of Dressel Type 2-4 lamps, are normally in a reduced fabric with a grey clay and black slip. Dressel Type 2 lamps (Warzenlampen) have an unpierced lug on the left side and rows of raised points on the shoulder and sometimes on the underbody; most of the fourteen examples found (10-12) are in buff or pink clays with red or orange slips, but a few are reduced. Lamp 13, with rays on its shoulder, is probably a Dressel Type 2/3 variant. Dressel Type 3 lamps can be deep and narrow or shallow and wide, but all have a narrower shoulder and a wider discus than lamps of Dressel Type 2, and this discus is often decorated; they also have a lug on each side of the body. Fabrics are much as Dressel Type 2 lamps. Fourteen fragments of the narrower form of Dressel Type 3 lamps were found (14-15) and twenty of the wider shape (16-26). Discus decorations include a beggar, unidentified human figures and animals, a warship, rosettes, ovules and scallop-shells. The base-fragments 23-6 have inscriptions within them, only the initial N of 24 being complete. Lamp 27 differs from the main run of Dressel Type 3 lamps in having a channel between the nozzle and the discus; it has a wreath on the discus and the letters P and F within the base. Only one fragment (28) of a Vogelkopflampe of Dressel Type 4 was found. There are eleven fragments that cannot be placed with certainty within Dressel Types 1 to 4 (29). and seven examples (30-31) that are transitional between Dressel Type 3 and Loeschcke Type I. Pavolini (1981, pp 161-6) has brought together the necessary information on lamps of Dressel Types 1-4 to enable the distribution and dating of these types to be determined with little or no doubt. The seventy lamps of Dressel Types 1 to 4 found at Via Gabina 10 date between about 70 BC and AD 15.

image from lamps report

9. G 10/87 Z21-22 R (2) SF no 87.59
     L 5.8 cm

Discus and shoulder fr. of a Dressel Type I lamp with two or more nozzles. Small plain discus; ivy berries on shoulder. Grey clay; black slip. Compare Bailey i, Q 730.

Pl. 9

 

image from lamps report

10. G 10/87 AA SF no. 19.20 R (3
       L 4.9 cm

Rear fr. of a Dressel Type 2 Warzenlampe, with applied handle. Raised ring on discus; raised points on shoulder. Pinkish-buff clay; red slip.

Pl. 10

 

image from lamps report

11. G 10/87 Z21-22 R (3)
       L 5.4 cm

Nozzle fr. of a Dressel Type 2 Warzenlampe. Buff clay; red slip.

Pl. 11

 

image from lamps report

12. G 10/80 F12 S (2)
      G 10/80 X 18 (1) SF no. 80.10 (2 examples)
      G 10/80 BB 9 G (3) SF no. 80.113
      G 10/80 BB 9 G (4) SF no. 80.230
      G 10/80 BB 12 M (9) SF no. 80.177
      G 10/80 BB 12 O (32) SF no. 80.140
      G 10/83 EE 22 C (25) SF no. 83.169
      G 10/85 Y 23 P (2) 160
      G 10/87 Z 21/22 R (3)
      G 10/87 Z 21/22 R (4)
      G 10/88 W 15 A (4)

Plus 12 frr of Dressel Type 2 Warzenlampen, bases, shoulders and nozzles, in buff, pink and grey clays, with red, orange, grey and black slips, from Contexts.

Pl. 12

 

image from lamps report

13. G 10/86 Y 23 V (15) BRC 189 A
       L 3.3 cm

Shoulder and lug fr. of a Dressel Type 2/3 lamp. Rays on sloping shoulder. Buff clay; red-brown slip.

Pl. 13

 

image from lamps report

14. G 10/86 BB 18 E (18) CUN 183
       L 5.3 cm

Left side, discus, lug and raised base fr. of a deep and narrow form of a Dressel Type 3 lamp: ivy rosette on discus.

Pl. 14

 

image from lamps report

15. G 10/80 BB 9 G (6) SF no. 80.272, decorated with rosettes, ovules and scallops
      G 10/80 BB 9 N (5) SF no. 80.141
      G 10/81 AA 13 B (3) SF no. 81.203
      G 10/84 BB 18 33(10)
      G 10/86 Y 23 189 (10) P.rec.V BRC
      G 10/87 Y 21 N (10)
      G 10/88 BB 18 C (7) 162

Plus 7 frr of Dressel Type 3 lamps as 14 above, in buff and pink clays, in red, brown and unslipped fabrics, from Contexts.

      G 10/81 AA 16 A (3) SF no. 81.116
      G 10/84 CC 18 C (16); G 10/86 723 P
      G 10/86 AA 24 A (3)
      G 10/87 AA 19/20 55 (4) SF no. 97.31
      G 10/88 W 15 Y (4)

Plus 6 frr (not illustrated) of Dressel Type 3 lamp as 14 above, from Contexts.

Pl. 15

 

image from lamps report

16. G 10/80 BB9 G (4) SF no. 80.175
       W 7.0 cm

Discus fr. of a Dressel Type 3 lamp, wide and shallow form. Seated beggar with bowl. Dark buff clay; black to brown slip. For the wide form, compare Bailey i, Q 735-41.

Pl. 16

 

image from lamps report

17. G 10/87 Z21-22 R (4) SF no. 87.98
       W 4.5 cm

Discus fr. as 16 above: warship. Pink clay; red slip. For the figure-type, compare Dressel 1899, pl. III, 3, from Rome.

Pl. 17

 

image from lamps report

18. G 10/86 BB 18 E (14); BB 18 E (14) CUN 183
       L 7.5 cm

Joining frr as 16 above: rosette on discus; air-hole. Brown clay and slip (burnt).

Pl. 18

 

image from lamps report

19. G 10/84 EE27 (1) SF no. 84.207
       L 3.0 cm

Discus fr. as 16 above: two human legs on base-line. Light brown clay; no slip

Pl. 19

 

image from lamps report

20. G 10/86 BB 18 D surface
       L 2.2 cm

Discus fr. as 16 above: uncertain scene. Buff clay; brown slip.

Pl. 20

 

image from lamps report

21. AA 13 Unstrat.
       L 2.3 cm

Discus fr. as 16 above: animal to left, rear legs and tail only surviving. Buff clay; black slip.<

Pl. 21

 

image from lamps report

22. G 10/80 BB 12 S (2) SF no. 80.204
       L 4.4 cm

Discus fr. as 16 above: wings of bird or minor deity.
Buff clay, unslipped.

Pl. 22

 

image from lamps report

image from lamps report

23. G 10/87 Z 21/22 R (4) SF no. 87.94
       L 7.9 cm

Base-ring fr. as 16 above, with incuse name: ]INCI (?). Buff clay, unslipped.

Fig. 6; Pl. 23

 

image from lamps report

image from lamps report

24. G 10/87 Y 21 N (10)
       L 6.4 cm

Base-ring fr. as last, with incuse letter: N. Buff clay, unslipped.

Fig. 7; Pl. 24

 

image from lamps report

image from lamps report

25. G 10/86 Y 21/23 S (3)
       L 2.7 cm

Base-ring fr. as last, with uncertain incuse letter, perhaps P_, but possibly A_ (perhaps AMIL). Buff clay, unslipped.

Fig. 8; Pl. 25

 

image from lamps report

image from lamps report

 

26. G 10/80 BB 9 Ca (1) SF no. 80.213
       L 3.2 cm

Flat base fr., probably as 16 above, with incuse letter: C[.
Buff clay, unslipped.

Plus 9 frr of lamps (not illustrated) similar to 16 above, in buff and grey clays, of red, brown, black and unslipped fabrics, from Contexts

      G 10/78 N 15 I (1) SF no. 78.24
      G 10/79 P 12 J (6) SF no. 79.17
      G 10/80 BB 9 G (1)
      G 10/80 BB 9 G (4) SF no. 80.229
      G 10/81 EE 23 (2) SF no. 81.83
      G 10/85 EE 24 (1)
      G 10/86 Y 21 S (8)
      G 10/86 Y 23 V (15) BRC 184 A (from same lamp)
      G 10/87 Y 21 N (10)
      G 10/89 AA13 A (3).

Fig. 9; Pl. 26

 

image from lamps report

image from lamps report

image from lamps report

27. G 10/87 Z 21/22 R (2) + R (2) SF no. 87.67 + R (3) + R (3) SF no. 87.75

Five frr, joined as three non-joining sherds, of a lamp near Dressel Type 3, with nozzle- channel; two side lugs; wreath on discus; base-ring with incuse letters P and F and five small circles.
Buff clay; red slip.

Fig. 10; Pl. 27a, 27b

 

image from lamps report

28. G 10/89 AA 12 A (3)
       L 2.1 cm

Right front fr. of Early Vogelkopflampe of Dressel Type 4.
Buff clay; brown slip.

Pl. 28

 

image from lamps report

29.

Plus 10 side-lugs from various Late Republican lamps, in buff and grey clays, of red, black and unslipped fabrics (6 illustrated), from Contexts

      G 10/80 BB 9 G (1) SF no. 80.213
      G 10/80 BB 9 G (5) SF no. 80.232
      G 10/82 GG 27 A (2) SF no. 82.359
      G 10/87 Z 21 /22 R (2)
      G 10/87 Z 21/22 R (3) (3 examples)
      G 10/87 Z 21/22 R (4)
      G 10/87 AA 19/20 S (4)
      G 10/89 BB 18 33(c)

Plus applied handle from a lamp (not illustrated) of Dressel Types 1-4, from Context
      G 10/87 AA SF no. 19.20 S (2) 184

Pl. 29

 

image from lamps report

30. G 10/80 BB 9 G (2) SF no. 80.170
       L 6.3 cm

Front right fr. of a lamp transitional between Dressel Type 3 and Loeschcke Type I. Air- hole. Buff clay; red slip.

Pl. 30

 

image from lamps report

31.

Plus 6 frr (5 nozzles) of lamps similar to 30 above, in buff clays, unslipped, from Contexts

      G 10/84 BB 2 J East (5) DOL 332
      G 10/86 Y 21 S (8)
      G 10/87 Y 21 N (10)
      G 10/87 Z 21/22 R (3) (2 examples)
      G 10/87 Z 21/22 R (4)

Pl. 31

Loeschcke Type I

Loeschcke Type IA with nozzle-channel

Lamps of Loeschcke (1919) Type IA, with and without a channel between the wick-hole and the discus, and variants of these (Bailey 1980, Type A, groups i and ii) were originally developed in Italy, and are of Augustan-Tiberian date: those with nozzle-channels are probably all Augustan. Their main feature is an angled nozzle-tip, the nozzle itself being flanked by curved features traditionally described as volutes. The clays are all variants of the buff-coloured fabrics with red or brown slips that are typical of Italian products of the first centuries AD Two lamps with a nozzle-channel were found, but some of the fragments placed in the next section may have had this feature (particularly those that have concentric circles round the filling-hole) but it has not survived on the sherd as excavated. Only one of them has discus decoration, an ivy-leaf on 32; it is part of a larger scene.

image from lamps report

32. G 10/86 Y 23 V (15) BRC 189 A
       L 5.3 cm

Front left fr. Shoulder-form IIa. Ivy leaf on discus.
Buff clay; dark brown slip.

Pl. 32

 

image from lamps report

33. G 10/81 BB20 South Z (7) SF no. 81.168
       L 4.3 cm

Front left fr. Plain discus. Buff clay; dark brown slip.

Pl. 33

Loeschcke Type IA

Fragments of sixty-nine lamps of Loeschcke Type IA, apparently without a nozzle-channel, were recovered. Base-rings are more likely to be found on first-century lamps of this type than of other types (except some large lamps of Broneer Type XXI) and such fragments have been placed here. Lamp 39 differs from the type in having shoulder-volutes. Discus decorations include rosettes, radiating lines and an ovule-frieze; more figurative are the animal frieze of 34, the pair of squids on 36, a bird on a bough on 38, and part of a wing and perhaps a gladiator's helmet-crest included in 40. Two lamps have mouldmarks, a reversed S on 36 and a double loop on 41. No lamps of Loeschcke Type IB (Bailey Type A, group iii) have been recognised, although some lamp fragments placed in Loeschcke Type IV below have Shoulder-forms that are found also on Loeschcke Type IB and some of these sherds could be of the latter type. Lamp 51, also placed with Loeschcke Type IV, may be Loeschcke Type IA.

image from lamps report

34. G 10/83 EE22 C (27) SF no. 83.194
       L 5.3 cm

Discus fr.: concentric circles round filling-hole; animal frieze. Buff clay; red slip. Sherd G 10/80 BB 9 G (2) SF no. 80.174 is probably from the same lamp and is illustrated with it.

Pl. 34

 

image from lamps report

35. G 10/86 Y 21 S (13)
      W 7.0 cm

Discus, body and base-ring fr. Near Shoulder-form I. Ovule-frieze between shoulder and concentric rings round filling-hole. Buff clay; brown slip.

Pl. 35

 

image from lamps report

image from lamps report

36. G 10/84 CC 23 O 17 S (4)
       L 8.8 cm W 0.2 cm

Almost complete; base-ring; air-hole. Shoulder-form IIa. Discus: pair of squids. Reversed S mouldmark within base. Buff clay; red-to-black streaky slip. Close, perhaps of the same Series: Oziol 1977, pl. 11, 176, an Italian lamp from Cyprus.

Fig. 11; Pl. 36

 

image from lamps report

37. G 10/81 BB20 South Z (8) SF no. 81.127 + SF no. 81.128
       L 7.8 cm

Two non-joining frr. Shoulder-form I. Discus: rosette between shoulder and concentric circles round filling-hole. Pink-buff clay; red slip.

Pl. 37

 

image from lamps report

38. G 10/86 Y 23 D (4)
      W 3.1 cm

Discus fr.: bird on bough (part of larger scene).
Buff clay, unslipped.

Pl. 38

 

image from lamps report

39. G 10/87 AA 19/20 South R (3)
       L 5.5 cm

Nozzle and discus fr. of Loeschcke Type IA variant: nozzle-volutes run into the shoulder. Buff clay; brown slip.

Pl. 39

 

image from lamps report

image from lamps report

40.

Plus 14 Loeschcke Type IA shoulder and discus frr (11 illustrated): rosettes, radiating lines, uncertain subjects (including wing; gladiator's helmet crest?), in buff clays, with dark brown and red slips, from Contexts

      G 10/82 W 15 A (3)
      G 10/82 W17 (1) SF no. 82.275 (rays)
      G 10/82 BB 22 7? (rosette)
      G 10/82 BB 22 B CC 22 G A (2) SF no. 82.294
      G 10/82 CC 22 A (3) SF no. 82.187 (crest)
      G 10/82 CC 22 A (3) SF no. 82.256
      G 10/83 U 20 E (3) SF no. 83.207 (hand?)
      G 10/83 CC 19 (3) SF no. 83.14 (curved rosette)
      G 10/86 BB 18 E (18) CUN 183 (wing)
      G 10/86 CC 17 C (9) (drapery)
      G 10/86 CC 17 C (9) SF no. 86.11 (rosette)
      G 10/86 EE16 K (8) (rosette)
      G 10/87 AA SF no. 19.20 R (3) (rosette)
      G 10/88 W 15 Y (3).

Plus 21 Loeschcke Type IA shoulder frr (not illustrated), in buff clays, with dark brown and red slips, from Contexts

      G 10/80 BB 12 S (2) SF no. 80.185
      G 10/81 BB 20 South Z (4) SF no. 81.207
      G 10/81 BB 20 south Z (6) SF no. 81.202
      G 10/82 CC 22 D (4)
      G 10/83 CC 16 C (15) SF no. 83.228
      G 10/83 EE 22 C (22) SF no. 83.198 (with multiple base-ring)
      G 10/84 U 22 (9) 009
      G 10/84 BB 23 (1)
      G 10/84 CC 23 (2) SF no. 84.97
      G 10/85 AA 22 C (2) 151
      G 10/85 EE 24 (1)
      G 10/86 Y 20 C (3)
      G 10/86 BB 18 E (14) CUN 183
      G 10/86 CC 17 C (9)
      G 10/87 Z 21/22 R (2)
      G 10/87 Z 21/22 R (3) (2 examples)
      G 10/87 AA 19/20 R (3)
      G 10/88 X 16 Y (3)
      G 10/89 S14 F (8)

Plus 8 Loeschcke Type IA nozzle frr (not illustrated), in buff clays, with dark brown and red slips, from Contexts

      G 10/80 BB 9 O (4) SF no. 80.132
      G 10/82 O 14 B (4) SF no. 82.334
      G 10/82 CC 22 A (4)
      G 10/82 CC 22 A (4) SF no. 82.213
      G 10/84 CC 22 E (9) SF no. 84.39 D
      G 10/87 Z21/22 R (3) (3 examples)

Plus 19 base-ring frr (not illustrated), all probably from Loeschcke Type IA lamps, in buff clays, with dark brown and red slips, from Contexts

      G 10/81 DD15 D (99) SF no. 81.219
      G 10/82 X16 X (3) SF no. 82.350
      G 10/82 BB 22 B CC 22 E (3) SF no. 82.346
      G 10/82 CC 22 A (4)
      G 10/82 CC 195 B DD195 E (5)
      G 10/83 U 20 A (2) SF no. 83.114
      G 10/83 EE 22 A (1) SF no.83.128
      G 10/83 EE 22 C (13) SF no. 83.115
      G 10/84 V 22 Q (2)
      G 10/84 DD 18 A (8) SF no. 84.49
      G 10/84 EE 27 (1)
      G 10/85 AA 22 D (8) SF no. 85.141
      G 10/85 BB18 Ac (6)
      G 10/86 Y 23 V (15) BRC 189 A
      G 10/86 CC 17 C (9)
      G 10/87 Z21/22 R (3)
      G 10/87 Z21/22 R (4)
      G 10/87 AA 23 C (3); G 10/87 no number

Pl. 40a, 40b

 

image from lamps report

image from lamps report

41. G 10/82 W 15 A (4) SF no. 82.189

Base fr. with mouldmark in form of a double loop. Buff clay; red slip.

Fig. 12; Pl. 41

Loeschcke Type IV

Lamps of this type have round-tipped nozzles flanked by volutes (Bailey 1980 Type B). The Italian products (as here) have a date range largely from the reign of Tiberius to the early Trajanic period, but some may go as late as Hadrian. Most are of buff clays, with brown and red slips. Some one hundred and two fragments were found, of which only 42 is complete.

With Shoulder-form IIIa

Some of these could be Loeschcke Type IB; a few might be Broneer Type XXI. Human figures include the sex-show scene on 42 and the leg surviving on 47. Animals, both mythological and mundane are found, the gryphon on 46, the horse and hoofed animal on 50 and 48 respectively, the hunt scenes on 43-5; a wreath decorates 49. Only 42 has a maker's mark, a plain footprint stamp.

image from lamps report

42. G 10/84 CC 22 (9) 010 SF no. 84.207
       L 10.3 W 7.6 cm

Complete; raised base; air-hole. Discus: erotic scene: dwarf entertainers. Plain footprint stamp (not illustrated). Buff clay; red slip. Close: Bailey ii, Q 877.

Pl. 42

 

image from lamps report

43. G 10/88 W 15 A (4) SF no. 88.15
       L 6.1 cm

Fr.: hound attacking boar to right. Buff clay; brown slip. For the figure-type, also on an Italian Loeschcke Type IV lamp, compare Bailey ii, Q 897.

Pl. 43

 

image from lamps report

44. G 10/80 BB 9 G (2) SF no. 80.166
      W 6.4 cm

Fr. as last (not same Series). Buff clay; brown slip.

Pl. 44

 

image from lamps report

45. G 10/83 EE22 C (29) SF no. 83.223
      W 2.7 cm

Fr.: boar to left. Buff clay; red slip. For figure-type, Compare Deneauve 1969, pl. LII, 509, an Italian Loeschcke Type IV lamp from Carthage.

Pl. 45

 

image from lamps report

46. G 10/88 BB 15 West A (4)
       L 2.9 cm

Fr.: gryphon (?) to right, rear legs and tail-tip surviving. Red clay and slip. For figure-type, compare Loeschcke 1919, pl. XII, 470-71.

Pl. 46

 

image from lamps report

47. G 10/84 CC 19 A (7) 092 SF no. 84.250
       L 2.6 cm

Fr.: leg of figure standing to left, with drapery. Buff clay; red slip.

Pl. 47

 

image from lamps report

48. G 10/80 BB 9 E (1) SF no. 80.35
      W 2.1 cm

Fr.: rear legs of hoofed animal to left. Buff clay; red slip.

Pl. 48

 

image from lamps report

49. G 10/85 AA 22 C (2) SF no. 85.126
      W 3.9 cm

Fr.: wreath. Buff clay; red slip. For discus decoration, compare Deneauve 1969, pl. LXIII, 632, on an Italian Loeschcke Type V lamp from Carthage.

Pl. 49

 

image from lamps report

50. G 10/85 AA 22 C (2) SF no. 85.145
      W 3.0 cm

Fr.: horse to right. Buff clay; red slip.

Plus 54 Shoulder frr with Shoulder-form IIIa (not illustrated), from Contexts

      G 10/80 X 18 H (7) SF no. 80.76
      G 10/80 X 18 R (4) SF no. 80.50
      G 10/80 BB 9 G (1)
      G 10/80 BB 9 G (1) SF no. 80.213
      G 10/80 FF 9 G (2) SF no. 80.191
      G 10/81 V 23 N (2) 81-47
      G 10/81 V 23 N (2) SF no. 81.48
      G 10/81 AA 16 A (3) SF no. 81.116
      G 10/81 BB 20 Lower Z (8) SF no. 81.129
      G 10/81 DD 15 D (4) SF no. 81.219
      G 10/82 W 15 A (4) SF no. 82.394
      G 10/82 W 15 A (5) 82-400
      G 10/82 BB 22 C (3) 82-236
      G 10/82 CC 22 A (2) SF no. 82.277
      G 10/82 CC 22 A (2) SF no. 82.335
      G 10/82 CC 22 A (3) SF no. 82.352
      G 10/82 CC 22 A (3) SF no. 82.380
      G 10/82 CC 22 D (3) SF no. 82.385
      G 10/82 DD 22 A (3) SF no. 82.188
      G 10/82 unstratified
      G 10/83 U 20 E (3) SF no. 83.268
      G 10/83 CC 18 B (13) SF no. 83.229
      G 10/83 DD 11 A (6?) SF no. 83.131
      G 10/83 EE 22 C (24) SF no. 83.158
      G 10/83 EE 22 C (24) SF no. 83.167
      G 10/84 W 20 E (4)
      G 10/84 BB 23 (3)
      G 10/84 BB 23 V (3)
      G 10/84 DD 16 (1)
      G 10/84 DD 24 P (3)
      G 10/85 X 21 W (2) SF no. 85.97
      G 10/85 Y 23 (1) (2 examples)
      G 10/85 AA 22 C (2) SF no. 85.112
      G 10/85 AA 22 D (8) 142
      G 10/85 BB 18 Ac (6) SF no. 85.75
      G 10/85 CC 16 V (56) (2 examples)
      G 10/86 Y 23 P (5)
      G 10/86 Y 23 P (6)
      G 10/86 Y 23 V (10) 189
      G 10/86 AA 25 (1)
      G 10/86 BB 18 E (14) CUN 183
      G 10/87 Z21/22 R (2) (2 examples)
      G 10/87 Z21/22 R (3) (2 examples)
      G 10/87 AA 23 C (4) (3 examples)
      G 10/88 W 15 A (4)
      G 10/88 W 15 Y (4)
      G 10/89 S14 F (8) SF no. 89.13
      G 10/89 U 156a E (4) joins U 156a E (6).

Pl. 50

With Shoulder-form V

image from lamps report

51. G 10/87 Z 21/22 R (3) SF no. 87.82
      W 5.9 cm

Fr.: plant frieze between concentric circles at centre and rim. Buff clay; red slip. Perhaps Loeschcke Type IA and of Augustan date.

Plus 6 frr (not illustrated) with Shoulder-form V, but probably post-AD 50, from Contexts

      G 10/80 SF no. 80.132
      G 10/80 BB 12 S (2) SF no. 80.205
      G 10/84 BB 23 V (3)
      G 10/84 CC 22 (9) 009 SF no. 84.241, with human foot
      G 10/85 AA 22 D (7) SF no. 85.134, with band of rays
      G 10/87 AA SF no. 19.20 S (4)

Pl. 51

With Shoulder-form VIIb

image from lamps report

52. G 10/80 X 18 R (4) SF no. 80.50
       L 4.7 cm

Fr.: rosette. Buff clay; brown slip.

Pl. 52

Loeschcke Type IV nozzles with Shoulder-forms not surviving

None catalogued, but including 31 nozzles (not illustrated), from Contexts G 10/80 BB9 E (1) 80-139; G 10/80 BB12 S (2) 80-186; G 10/82 X16 X (3) 82-385; G 10/82 CC22 A (2) 82-317; G 10/82 CC22 A (3) 82-349; G 10/82 CC22 D (2) 82-285; G 10/83 CC22 L (8) 83-210; G 10/83 U20 E (3) 83-192; G 10/83 DD24 East B (4) 83-79; G 10/84 X16 (3) 84-310; G 10/84 BB23 (3); G 10/84 BB23 V (3); G 10/84 BB23 V (5); G 10/84 BB23 W (3); G 10/84 BB23 W (3) 84-114; G 10/84 CC22 (7) 009 84-246; G 10/84 CC22 (9) 010; G 10/84 DD20 D (4) 007; G 10/85 BB17 (4) 85-60; G 10/86 Y23 P (6); G 10/86 Y26 C (3); G 10/87 Y21 TNK 214 (1); G 10/87 AA23 C (3); G 10/87 AA23 C (4) (5 examples); G 10/88 W15 Y (4); G 10/89 U15 E (2); G 10/89 BB23 U (3).

Broneer Type XXI

The lamps of Broneer (1930) Type XXI (Bailey 1980, Type D) from Via Gabina 10 are all Italian, with the buff clays and red or brown slips that are so typical of their production area. The lamps of this type have one or more voluted nozzles with rounded tips, like those of Loeschcke Type IV lamps; two nozzles are more common than those with one: three or more are rare. Above the ring-handle placed at the rear is a decorative handle-ornament that gives aesthetic balance to the object. The Shoulder-forms can be much the same as those used on other volute-lamps, but there are many more variants than are found on the latter, particularly in the increased width, amongst later products, of the outer element of the shoulder. Early examples and large examples tend to have base-rings, but most have slightly raised bases. Handle-ornaments are crescent-shaped (55-7) or triangular (58-9). Palmettes decorate the triangular ornaments. Discus patterns include concentric circles, a rosette and a myrtle-wreath. This type of lamp is fairly long-lived and was produced in Italy from late Augustan times until well into the second century AD Sixty-seven fragments of Broneer Type XXI lamps were found.

image from lamps report

53. G 10/83 EE 22 C (27) SF no. 83.194
       L 8.4 cm

Single-nozzled form, left side fr. with part of nozzle; Shoulder-form IVa; air-hole.

Grey-buff clay; red-brown slip.

Pl. 53

 

image from lamps report

54. G 10/84 DD 16 A (8) SF no. 84.57
       L 8.0 cm

Shoulder fr. of large lamp; wide, level shoulder, near Shoulder-form IVa with concentric circles near edge of discus.

Buff clay; orange-red slip.

Plus 4 discus frr (not illustrated), in buff clays, with red and brown slips, from Contexts

    G 10/83 CC 22 E (9) SF no. 83.251 (concentric circles)
    G 10/85 X 21 S (2) 135 (rosette)
    G 10/87 AA 23 C (4) (concentric circle)
    G 10/87 BB 21 E (2) (myrtle-wreath)

Plus 20 shoulder and body frr (early and late forms: not illustrated), with various Shoulder-forms, in fabrics as before, from Contexts

G 10/80 X18 I (3) SF no. 80.64    
G 10/80 BB 9 G (3) 80-116    
G 10/81 V 23 N (2) 81-45    
G 10/82 BB 22 S CC 22 6 A (2) 82-323    
G 10/82 CC 22 (1) SF no. 82.244    
G 10/82 CC 22 A (3)    
G 10/82 CC 22 A (3) SF no. 82.353    
G 10/83 CC 22 E (9) SF no. 83.240    
G 10/83 DD 29 (1)SF no. 83.55    
G 10/84 W 21 L (6) SF no. 84.18    
G 10/84 BB 22 A (3)    
G 10/84 BB 23 U (2)    
G 10/84 DD 20 D (3) SF no. 84.204    
G 10/85 A 22 D (7) SF no. 85.84    
G 10/85 BB 18 E (8) SF no. 85.132    
G 10/86 Y 23 P (5)    
G 10/87 AA 23 C (4)    
G 10/87 AA 27 C (4)    
G 10/87 BB 21 E (5) DRN 334    
G 10/88 X 16 V (9)

Plus 26 nozzle frr (early and late forms: not illustrated), with various Shoulder-forms, in fabrics as before, from Contexts

G 10/79 A2 N (9) SF no. 79.25    
G 10/80 BB 12 M (6) SF no. 80.135    
G 10/82 BB 22 B CC 22 E (8)    
G 10/82 CC A (4) SF no. 82.22    
G 10/82 DD 18 West G (8)SF no. 82.213    
G 10/83 CC 18 (2) SF no. 83.182    
G 10/83 CC 18 A (3) SF no. 83.217    
G 10/83 EE 22 C (24) SF no. 83.13    
G 10/84 BB 23 V (3)    
G 10/84 BB 23 V (3) SF no. 84.173    
G 10/84 BB 23 V (5) 040    
G 10/84 CC 22 (9) 009    
G 10/84 cleanup (1); G 10/85 PO 15 (1)    
G 10/85 Y 23 P (2) SF no. 85.133    
G 10/85 AA 22 C (2) SF no. 85.119    
G 10/85 AA 22 C (2) SF no. 85.121    
G 10/86 Y 21 S (13)    
G 10/86 Y 23 V (15) BRC 189A    
G 10/86 BB 18 E (18) CUN 183    
G 10/87 W 20 L (1)    
G 10/87 Z 21/22 E (3)    
G 10/87 AA 23 C (3)    
G 10/87 AA 23 C (4) (2 examples)    
G 10/87 AA 23 C (4) SF no. 87.26

 
Plus 4 base frr (not illustrated) in fabrics as before, from Contexts

    
G 10/83 U20 E (3) SF no. 83.267    
G 10/83 EE 22 C (30) SF no. 83.236    
G 10/85 DD 15 K (6)    
G 10/87 AA 23 C (3)

 Pl. 54

 

image from lamps

55. G 10/85 EE 16 (7) SF no. 85.89
      W 4.6 cm

Crescent-shaped handle-ornament. Buff clay; brown slip. Compare Bailey ii, pl. 34.

Pl. 55

 

image from lamps report

56. G 10/82 DD 22 Z (2) SF no. 82.222.
      W 4.1 cm

Crescent-shaped handle-ornament.
Buff clay; brown slip.

Pl. 56

 

image from lamps report

57. G 10/87 AA 23 C (4) SF no. 87.15
      W 4.0 cm

Crescent-shaped handle-ornament.
Buff clay; red-brown slip.

Pl. 57

 

image from lamps report

58. G 10/85 AA 22 C (2) SF no. 85.130
      W 6.0 cm

Triangular handle-ornament: palmette.
Buff clay; red-brown slip. Compare handle-ornament of Hellmann 1987, pl. XXII, 191.

Pl. 58

 

image from lamps report

59. G 10/81 V 23 N (2) SF no. 81.25
      W 5.5 cm

Triangular handle-ornament, upper part lost: palmette.
Buff clay; red-brown slip (burnt).

Plus 6 handle frr (not illustrated), the ornaments lost, from similar lamps with similar fabrics, from Contexts

G 10/83 BB 26 B (3) SF no. 83.249
G 10/84 BB 23 A (3)
G 10/84 BB 22 B CC 22 (1)
G 10/84 BB 23 V (3)
G 10/84 CC 22 (4) SF no. 84.94
G 10/85 AA 22 C (2) SF no. 85.106
G 10/86 Y 23 B (4)

Pl. 59

Loeschcke Type V

Lamps of Loeschcke Type V are volute-lamps with round-tipped nozzles, but are distinguished from Loeschcke Type IV and Broneer Type XXI lamps in having shoulder-volutes, curving extensions of the shoulders, rather than the double-ended volutes of the other two types. All have ring-handles and, where they survive, slightly raised bases. Only seven such lamps were found, four of which are of Bailey 1980, Type C, group i, with impressed ovules or leaves on Shoulder-form VIIIb (60-62), which date from late Claudian to Trajanic times; Lamp 63 is a miniature with a plain discus and shoulder; and two lamps are of the large form, Bailey 1980 Type C, group v, which is Flavian date or a little earlier (64): these have decorated shoulders, one a myrtle-wreath in relief, the other with impressed ovules. Only 61 and 62 have a decorated discus, the first a rosette or a scallop-shell, the other has two Lares, only one surviving. All these lamps are of Italian manufacture, with the buff clays and red or brown slips common in the first century AD; only 63 is unslipped.

image from lamps report
60. G 10/84 CC 22 E (9) SF no. 84.103
       L 9.7, W 6.9 cm

Almost complete: nozzle lost; ring-handle; raised circular base; air-hole. Shoulder-form VIIIb, with impressed ovules. Plain discus.
Buff clay; red-brown slip.

Pl. 60

 

image from lamps report

61. G 10/85 AA 22 C (2) SF no. 85.109
       L 4.8 cm

Left front fr. Shoulder-form VIIIb, with impressed ovules. Discus: rosette or scallop-shell.
Buff clay; red slip.

Pl. 61

 

image from lamps report

62. G 10/84 CC 22 (9) 009 SF no. 84.234
       L 9.1 cm

Right side fr.; raised circular base. Shoulder-form VIIIb, with impressed leaves. Discus: Lar (one of a pair).
Buff clay; brown slip. For figure-type, compare Bailey ii, Q 1095.

Plus fr. with similar shoulder-pattern to 62 (not illustrated), from Context
G 10/82 CC 22 A (1) SF no. 82.184
 
Pl. 62

Loeschcke Type V, Miniature

image from lamps report

image from lamps report

63. G 10/83 EE 22 C (9) SF no. 83.79
       L 6.2 cm, W 3.1 cm

Complete; ring-handle; raised oval base. Shoulder-form VIIb. Plain discus.
Buff clay, unslipped.

Pl. 63a, 63b

Loeschcke Type V, Large

image from lamps report
64. G 10/82 EE 23 A (4) SF no. 82.195
       L 5.9 cm

Right side fr. Wide shoulder with myrtle-wreath in relief. Small plain discus.
Buff clay; red slip.

Plus handle-fr, with impressed ovules on shoulder (not illustrated), from Context
G 10/84 CC22 (9) 010

Pl. 64

Base Fragments from Volute-Lamps

Inscriptions and stamps are found on five base sherds broken from Italian first-century volute-lamps of uncertain types.

image from lamps report

image from lamps report

65. G 10/84 BB23 V (3) SF no. 84.173?
       L 2.9 cm

Incised letters: I.O or O.I. Buff clay; red-slip.

Fig. 13; Pl. 65

 

image from lamps report

image from lamps report


66. G 10/86 AA22 F (5)
       W 3.2 cm

Incuse letters: O]PPI.
Buff clay; brown slip.

Fig. 14; Pl. 66

 

image from lamps report

image from lamps report


67. G 10/80 BB9 G (6) SF no. 80.202
       W 4.7 cm

Incuse letters: ]VC.
Pink-buff clay; red slip.

Fig. 15; Pl. 67

 

image from lamps report

image from lamps report


68. G 10/84 CC22 (9) 009 SF no. 84.247
       W 2.9 cm

Incuse footprint stamp.
Buff clay; red-brown slip.

Fig. 16; Pl. 68

 

image from lamps report

image from lamps report


69. G 10/84 BB 23 V (3)
       SF no. 84.172
       L 2.4 cm

Incuse stamp: concentric circles.
Buff clay; red-brown slip.

Fig. 17; Pl. 69

Round-Bodied Lamps with Angled Nozzle, of Bailey Type F

These large and rare lamps of the Augustan-Tiberian period were made probably only in Italy. Lamp 70 is the only certain fragment found, but a second sherd may also be of this type.

image from lamps report
70. G 10/87 AA 23 C (4)
       W 4.3 cm

Nozzle fr.
Buff clay; brown slip.

Plus fr. possible of the same type, not illustrated, from Context G 10/88 AA 22 (1)
Pl. 70

9. Square-Bodied Lamp of Bailey Type I

Lamps with square or rectangular bodies and only one nozzle are comparatively rare, both those of Italian manufacture and those made elsewhere in the Empire. As one might expect, the one example from Via Gabina 10 is Italian. The surviving fragment is very plain and bears comparison with Bailey ii Q 1108, and was probably made during the last third of the first century AD

image from lamps report
71. G 10/85 BB 18 Ac (12) SF no. 85.91
       L 4.9 cm

Fr. with square body and flat top; small sunken discus.
Buff clay; red slip.

Pl. 71

Pointed-Oval Lamps of Bailey Type J

Lamps of this shape, while rare, are found in rather greater quantity than square-bodied lamps like 71 above, and this reflected in the ten or eleven examples, all Italian, from Via Gabina 10. They were made from about AD 70 to 130. Lamp 73 is a product of the central Italian workshop of L Munatius Threptus.

image from lamps report
72. G 10/87 AA 23 C (3)
       L 3.9 cm

Left front fr.
Buff clay; red slip.

Pl. 72

 

image from lamps report

image from lamps report


73. G 10/82 CC22 A (2) SF no. 82.285
       W 3.3 cm

Rear fr. of base, signed M]VNTRE[PT incuse. uff clay; brown slip.

Plus 5 top frr of similar lamps (not illustrated), in buff clays with red slips, from Contexts

G 10/80 BB 9 G (2) SF no. 80.102
G 10/83 CC 22 E (9) SF no. 83.239
G 10/87 AA 23 C (3)G 10/87 AA 23 E (4) C
G 10/89 P10 unstrat.

Plus 4 pointed-oval base frr (not illustrated) from similar lamps, fabrics as last, from Contexts

G 10/85 Y 23 W 8 (5) SF no. 85.140
G 10/85 BB 19 E (1) SF no. 85.131
G 10/87 AA 23 C (4) (2 examples, one probably part of Lamp 72 above).

 

Fig. 18; Pl. 73

Lug-Handled Lamps of Bailey Type G

This type is related to a certain extent to lamps of Loeschcke Type V, often having shoulder-volutes, but where the nozzle is rounded it is short, resembling the nozzles of Loeschcke Type VIII. A Neronian-Trajanic date range is likely. Most examples have lug-handles on the sides of the lamp and a ring handle at the rear is almost always found. Two main variants are found amongst the Via Gabina 10 lamps, one, as described above, with short rounded nozzles, the other having angular nozzles without volutes. Three of the former were found and six of the latter; 79 is yet another variant, lacking the side-handles. All are Italian, in the buff clays and red to brown slips common to their production area. None is decorated, but 74 is signed SVCCESSE, a central Italian workshop.

Short rounded nozzles and Shoulder-form IVa

image from lamps report

image from lamps report

74. G 10/81 BB 22 A (4) SF no. 81.133
       L 9.9 cm, W 8.4 cm

Almost complete: nozzle lost; ring-handle; lug-handle on each side. Discus: plain. Raised circular base with incuse name: SVCCESSE.
Pink-buff clay; red slip. Close: Bailey ii, Q 1097.

Plus 2 lug-handle frr and a shoulder fr. (Not illustrated), in buff clays with red slips, from Contexts

G 10/82 CC 22 A (2) SF no. 82.318
G 10/84 DD 20 0 (4) SF no. 84.92
G 10/87 AA 23 C (4)

 

Pl. 74a, 74b

Voluteless angular nozzles and Shoulder-form VIIb

image from lamps report
75. G 10/84 CC 22 (4) 009 SF no. 84.228
       W 7.2 cm

Rear fr. with ring-handle and lug-handle.
Buff clay; brown slip.

Pl. 75

 

image from lamps report

76. G 10/84 CC22 (9) 010 SF no. 84.203 + G 10/89 U 15 E (4), joined
        W 8.3 cm

Front fr. with lug-handles. Air-hole.
Buff clay; brown slip.

Pl. 76

 

image from lamps report

77. Context not recorded
       L 3.2 cm

Nozzle fr. near 76, but with nozzle-channel.
Buff clay; brown slip.

Pl. 77

 

image from lamps report

78. Context not recorded
       L 4.0 cm

Fr. with shoulder and plain discus, near 76, but with nozzle-channel.
Buff clay; brown slip.

Plus nozzle fr., not illustrated, from Context G 10/80 BB 9 E (1) SF no. 80.213

 
Plus lug-handle fr., not illustrated, from Context G 10/86 CC 17 C (9) SF no. 86.10 (but perhaps from a lamp of Loeschcke Type I).
 
Pl. 78

 

image from lamps report

79. G 10/84 BB 23 W (3) SF no. 84.112
       L 7.8 cm

Right side fr. as 75-8, but lacking side lug-handles. Flat resting-surface following shape of lamp.
Buff clay; red slip.

Pl. 79

Nozzles from Lamps of Bailey Type H

Bailey 1980 Type H is not strictly a type but includes lamps of various forms all sharing the same nozzle-form, which has a flat oval area, sometimes tending to be heart-shaped, surrounding the wick-hole; these nozzle are normally fairly long and do not have volutes; most of the Italian versions date to the second half of the first century AD or just a little later, and the four examples included here are probably of that period.

4 examples, not catalogued or illustrated, from Contexts G 10/80 BB 9 G (2) SF no. 80.173; G 10/85 AA 22 C (2); G 10/87 Z 21/22 R (2); G 10/89 U 65 South E (4).

Late Vogelkopflampen

There was probably not a direct line of development between the Early Vogelkopflampe of Augustan times, as 28 above, and the later productions described here: the addorsed birds' heads on the nozzle and the blunt splayed nozzle itself are the characteristics they share (and, indeed, many of the later lamps do not have birds' heads). The type has been fully discussed in Pavolini (1980) and to a lesser extent in Bailey (1980), Type M, the latter without the benefit of Pavolini's publication. They may have been in production for a century, from about AD 80 to perhaps as late as 180. Although examples were produced in Africa Proconsularis, the type was basically Italian and there is no reason to suppose that any of the Via Gabina examples came from anywhere other than Italy, and probably central Italy. A deep form, like 80 and another fragment, is probably early in the sequence, the shallower shape, including the thirteen examples 81-85 being likely to be mostly of the second century, although some could be a little earlier. Where it survives, all have the characteristic transverse handle. They are of the normal buff central Italian clays but, unlike other shapes of lamps produced at the same time, none has a slip coating. Three are signed, one from the workshop of L Fabricius Masculus (83), one from that of C. Oppius Restitutus (85), and one (82) with an illegible mark.

Deep form; buff, unslipped clay

image from lamps report
80. G 10/85 BB 18 Ac (6) SF no. 85.73
       L 7.4 cm

Top fr. with handle; nozzle broken. Nozzle decoration: notches.

Plus fr., not illustrated, from Context G 10/84 CC 22 (9) 009 SF no. 84.243

Pl. 80

Shallow form; buff, unslipped clay

image from lamps report
81. G 10/85 AA 22 C (2) SF no. 85.107 + SF no. 85.121 + G 10/87 AA 23 C (4), all joined
       L 8.5 cm, W 5.8 cm

Fragmentary: handle and frr lost. Nozzle decoration: addorsed birds' heads.

Pl. 81

 

image from lamps report

82. G 10/85 BB 17 X (3)
       L 8.0, W 5.0 cm

Almost complete. Nozzle decoration: notches. Illegible and partially lost incuse name below.

Pl. 81

 

image from lamps report

image from lamps report


83. G 10/80 BB 12 M (5) SF no. 80.123
       L 6.6 cm

Front fr. Nozzle decoration: notches. Incuse name below: FABR ICMAS.

Fig. 20; Pl. 83

 

image from lamps report

84. G 10/87 AA 22 (1) + AA 23 C (2) + AA 23 C (4) SF no. 87.17, all joined
        L 8.7 cm

Left side and rear top fr.

Pl. 84

 

image from lamps report

image from lamps report


85. G 10/83 EE 22 C (8) SF no. 83.41 + SF no. 83.50, non-joining
       L c. 9.0 cm

Front and rear lower frr. Incuse name below: C.OPPI .RES.

Plus 8 frr, not illustrated, from Contexts

G 10/80 X 18 C (3) SF no. 80.24
G 10/81 CC 1 West C (1) SF no. 81.20
G 10/82 BB 22 B CC 22 CA (2) SF no. 82.290
G 10/82 CC 22 A (2) SF no. 82.299
G 10/83 U 20 E (3) SF no. 83.207
G 10/83 U 20 E (3) SF no. 83.212 + U 20 E (4) SF no. 83.230 (same lamp)
G 10/84 BB 23 (3) (with bird's head)
G 10/86 Y 21 S (13)

 

Fig. 21; Pl. 85

Central Italian Firmalampen

Loeschcke Type IX

The six lamps in this section (86-7) were based upon north Italiam lamps of a shape first devised in the Po Valley, but their central Italian makers have introduced their own characteristics and employed the buff clays and red slips common to their place of manufacture. These Loeschcke Type IX lamps, with narrow and closed nozzle-channels, together with the open-channelled Loeschcke Type X lamps below, are discussed as Type N, group vi in Bailey 1980, pp 289-90. Most central Italian Firmalampen have handles formed in the mould, unlike their north Italian prototypes, which are normally without handles. The Loeschcke Type IX versions were made during Flavian and early Trajanic times.

image from lamps report

Front left top fr.
Buff clay; red slip.

 

image from lamps report

87. G 10/89 U 15 North E (2)
       L 6.3 cm

Rear right top fr. with ring-handle.
Buff clay; red slip.


Plus 1 nozzle fr. and 3 multiple base-ring frr, not illustrated, from Contexts

G 10/85 Y 23 (1) SF no. 85.87
G 10/87 Z 21/22 R (4) (2 examples)
G 10/89 U 15 South E (3)

Pl. 87

Loeschcke Type X - early

Central Italian Firmalampen of Loeschcke Type X are probably based upon north Italian versions of the same type, rather than are developments from the central Italian Loeschcke Type IX lamps. They have the open nozzle-channel of their type and can cover a considerable date range. The earlier version, four examples of which were found at Via Gabina 10 (88-9), are of the first half of the second century AD; the three later lamps (90-92) probably date between AD 175 and 225. Only one is signed, the early lamp 89, but only the initial N of the name survives. Again central Italian buff clays are used, but the later examples have a thin matt orange slip rather than the bright, almost glossy slips of the earlier lamps of Loeschcke Type IX.

 

image from lamps report
88. G 10/87 AA 23 C (4)
       W 4.6 cm

Rear fr. with ring-handle.
Buff clay; thin orange-red slip.

 

Pl. 88

 

image from lamps report

image from lamps report


89. G 10/87 AA 23 C (4)
       L 4.2 cm and 2.3 cm

Top front right fr. and non-joining base-ring fr. with relief name N.
Buff clay; red slip.

Plus 2 frr, not illustrated, from Contexts G 10/80 BB9 G (6) 80-221; G 10/87 AA23 C (4).

Fig. 22; Pl. 89

Loeschcke Type X - late

image from lamps report
90. G 10/84 DD 20 D (3) SF no. 84.227
       L 5.4 cm

Shoulder fr. with lug.
Buff clay; thin orange slip.

Pl. 90

 

image from lamps report

91. G 10/80 X 18 (1) SF no. 80.14
       L 4.3 cm

Nozzle fr.
Buff clay; thin orange slip.

 

Pl. 91

 

image from lamps report

92. G 10/84 CC 22 (9) 009 SF no. 84.240
       L 7.5 cm

Nozzle and multiple base-ring fr.
Buff clay; thin orange slip.

 

Pl. 92

North Italian Firmalampen

Two examples only of Firmalampen made in the Po Valley were found at Via Gabina 10. Both are base fragments and it is not certain whether they are of Loeschcke Type IX or Type X. The signed example with the name SEXMVRR I is, however, probably of Loeschcke Type X and of the early years of the second century AD (see Buchi 1975, p. 122); the other lamp is probably not far off this in date. Both exhibit the hard unslipped red to brown clays of the north Italian products.

image from lamps report
93. G 10/81 CC 15 West A (3) SF no. 81.177
       W 1.7 cm

Small fr. of multiple base-ring from lamp of Loeschcke Type IX or X.
Red clay, unslipped.

Pl. 93

 

image from lamps report

image from lamps report


94. G 10/80 BB 12 M (2) SF no. 80.51 + G 10/88 BB 15 So A (2) SF no. 88.50, joined.
       W 8.5 cm

Multiple base-ring fr. of large lamp signed SEXMVRR I in relief.
Purple-brown clay, unslipped.

 

Fig. 23; Pl. 94

Loeschcke Type VIII

Loeschcke Type VIII lamps, a long-lived form, have circular bodies, a short nozzle with a rounded tip, and, normally, a ring-handle. Lamps of this shape are the most numerous form found during the excavations of both the Via Gabina 10 and 11 villas. From Via Gabina 10 some 411 examples of various groupings were found, ranging in date from Neronian/Flavian times to about the middle years of the third century AD; all are of Italian manufacture. They are here divided by chronology and form into various groupings

Lamps of the Mid-First to the Early Second Century AD

Loeschcke Type VIII lamps of Bailey Type O, group ii

These lamps have Shoulder-form VIIIb and all shoulders, except that of Lamp 102, are decorated with impressed ovules; the exception has impressed heart-shaped leaves. Two nozzles survive, on 95 and 100, and are almost circular in plan. No handles remain, but it is certain that all these lamps had one, and it is possible that some of the handles collected together after Lamp 141 may be from this type (but this also applies to other lamps of Loeschcke Type VIII of Bailey Types O and P). Discus decoration consists of rosettes, a raised circle, and a scene of Jupiter and his eagle. The usual buff clay and brown or red slips of Italian products are found and the seventeen lamps of this group date from about AD 50 to 100.

image from lamps report
95. G 10/86 Y 26 C (3)
       L 3.0 cm

Nozzle and shoulder fr.
Buff clay; brown slip.

Pl. 95

 

image from lamps report

96. G 10/83 CC 22 L (9) SF no. 83.196
       L 4.5 cm and 3.7 cm

Shoulder fr. and non-joining shoulder and discus fr.: raised circle.
Buff clay; brown slip.

Pl. 96

 

image from lamps report

97. G 10/88 W 15 A (4)
       L 3.9 cm

Shoulder fr.
Buff clay; brown slip.

Pl. 97

 

image from lamps report

98. G 10/84 CC 22 (9) 010 SF no. 84.104
       L 3.1 cm

Shoulder fr.
Buff clay; brown slip.

Pl. 98

 

image from lamps report

99. G 10/82 CC 22 A (3) SF no. 82.355
       L 3.0 cm

Shoulder fr.
Buff clay; brown slip.

Pl. 99

 

image from lamps report

100. G 10/84 DD 22 H (3) SF no. 84.149
         L 4.9 cm

Nozzle and shoulder fr.
Buff clay; brown slip.

Pl. 100

 

image from lamps report

101. G 10/85 AA 22 C (2) SF no. 85.129
         L 5.5 cm

Shoulder and discus fr. Discus: rosette.
Buff clay; red slip.

Pl. 101

 

image from lamps report

102. G 10/80 BB 9 G (2) SF no. 80.101
         L 4.7 cm

Shoulder and discus fr. Shoulder: impressed heart-shaped leaves. Discus: eagle on thunderbolt (bust of Jupiter lost).
Buff clay; red slip. For figure-type, compare Bailey ii, p. 8.

Pl. 102

 


Plus 9 frr, not illustrated, in buff clays with red or brown slips, from Contexts

G 10/80 BB 9 G (2) SF no. 80.232
G 10/82 BB 22 SF no. 82.304
G 10/82 CC 22 A (9)
G 10/82 DD 22 (1) SF no. 82.106 (rosette on discus)
G 10/83 EE 22 C (24) SF no. 83.158
G 10/84 CC 22 (9) 009 SF no. 84.23
G 10/84 CC 23 Z (2)
G 10/85 Y 23 P (2) SF no. 85.95
G 10/86 DD 15 A (3)

Loeschcke Type VIII lamps near Bailey Type O, group ii

The five or six lamps collected here have all the characteristics of Lamps 95-102, except their shoulders are plain, without impressed decoration: they can be given the same date. Lamp 103 has an almost circular heart-shaped nozzle and a short nozzle-channel; discus decorations include a raised ring, a wreath and palm-branches.

image from lamps report
103. G 10/87 AA 23 C (4)
         L 6.5 cm

Left front fr. with short nozzle-channel and heart-shaped nozzle. Buff clay; bright red slip.

 


104. G 10/85 AA 22 C (7) SF no. 85.147
         L 6.7 cm

Shoulder and discus fr.: perhaps from same lamp as 103.
Buff clay; bright red slip.

Pl. 103-4

 

image from lamps report

105. G 10/86 AA 24 (3)
         L 3.3 cm

Shoulder and discus fr.: raised ring on discus.
Buff clay; red slip.

Pl. 105

 

image from lamps report

106. G 10/85 Y 23 P (2) SF no. 85.94
         L 3.6 cm

Shoulder and discus fr.: wreath on discus.
Buff clay; red slip.

Pl. 106

 

image from lamps report

107. G 10/85 AA 22 C (2) SF no. 85.159
         L 3.3 cm

Shoulder fr. Buff clay; red slip.

Pl. 107

 

image from lamps report

108. G 10/86 DD 15 A (3)
         L 3.7 cm

Shoulder and discus fr.: palm-branch on discus.
Buff clay; red slip.

Pl. 108

Loeschcke Type VIII lamps of Bailey Type O, group iii

The four fragments of lamps grouped here all have the level, undecorated Shoulder-form IV and are of the buff clays with red or brown slips so often found with lamps of Italian origin. All would have had handles and 109 retains that feature; part of the short semicircular nozzle survives on 112. Only one has enough of the discus to show decoration, a wing-tip possibly of the eagle of Jupiter. These lamps can be dated to late in the middle years of the first century AD until the beginning of the second century.

image from lamps report
109. G 10/85 AA 22 C (2) SF no. 85.111
         W 4.3 cm

Rear fr. with ring-handle.
Buff clay; red slip.

Pl. 109

 

image from lamps report

110. G 10/86 X 21 V (9) BRI 189
         L 5.2 cm

Shoulder and discus fr.
Buff clay; brown slip.

 

Pl. 110

 

image from lamps report

111. G 10/87 Z 21/22 (3) SF no. 87.25
         L 4.2 cm

Shoulder and discus fr.: wing on discus (eagle with Jupiter?).
Buff clay; red slip.

Pl. 111

 

image from lamps report

112. G 10/82 BB 22 C (3) SF no. 82.286
         L 4.1 cm

Left front fr. with part of nozzle.
Buff clay; brown slip.

Pl. 112

Loeschcke Type VIII lamps of Bailey Type O, group iv or v

These large fat lamps of the last third of the first century and the early years of the second were made both in Campania and in central Italy. Four of the five examples from Via Gabina 10 have variants of Shoulder-form VIIIb (only the discus survives in the case of 115). The shoulder of 114 is plain; the other two have impressed ovules. No handles or nozzles survive. The fabrics are the normal Italian buff clays with red or brown slips, except that, like many of these large and impressive lamps from elsewhere, 113 is unslipped. Lamp 114 has a plain discus and the discus fragment 115 is decorated with Victoria to front, holding a palm-branch and a wreath; not enough remains of the other four lamps to determine whether they were decorated.

image from lamps report
113. G 10/84 BB 23 V (3) SF no. 84.173
         L 5.5 cm

Shoulder fr.: impressed ovules.
Buff clay, unslipped.

Pl. 113

 

image from lamps report

114. G 10/82 T 18 E (5) SF no. 82.85
         W 7.8 cm

Shoulder and discus fr., both plain; air-hole.
Buff clay; red slip.

Pl. 114

 

image from lamps report

115. G 10/85 X 23 N (2) SF no. 85.103
         L 6.1 cm

Discus fr.: Victoria to front.
Buff clay; brown slip.


For figure-type, compare Deneauve 1969, pl. XXXVI, 299, on an Italian lamp of Loeschcke Type IB, Waldhauer 1914, pl. XXI, 213, on an Italian lamp of Broneer Type XXI, and Hellmann 1987, pl. XXXI, 255, on a Standard Italian Loeschcke Type VIII lamp.
 
Pl. 115

 

image from lamps report

116. G 10/85 BB 18 Ac (2) + (3) SF no. 85.24 + SF no. 85.71 joined
         L 5.4 cm

Shoulder fr.: impressed ovules. Buff clay; red slip. Plus fr., not illustrated, from Context G 10/87 AA 23 C (4)

Pl. 116

Loeschcke Type VIII lamps near Bailey Type O, group v

The six lamps of this group are close in most characteristics and in date to that described immediately above, and all have Shoulder-form VIIIb, but they are a little smaller in size and some have proportionately smaller discs; four of them have a decorative lug on the shoulder. All have impressed patterns on the shoulder, ovules in most cases, but 117 has targets. The latter also has a rosette decorating its discus and 121 has a series of short rays at the outer edge of the discus (which is all that remains). All very probably had handles, but none survives; only 121 has part of its short rounded nozzle. A central Italian origin is likely for them all.

image from lamps report
117. G 10/84 CC 22 (9) 009 SF no. 84.244
         L 8.2 cm

Side fr., with shoulder-lug; impressed targets on shoulder. Discus: many-petalled rosette.
Buff clay; red slip.

Pl. 117

 

image from lamps report

118. G 10/83 CC 22 L (9) SF no. 83.222
         L 6.0 cm

Side fr., with shoulder-lug; impressed ovules on shoulder. Buff clay; red slip.

Pl. 118

 

image from lamps report

119. G 10/83 EE 22 C (25) SF no. 83.186
         L 7.3 cm

Side fr., with shoulder-lug; impressed ovules on shoulder. Raised circular base. Buff clay; red slip.

Pl. 119

 

image from lamps report

120. G 10/83 CC 22 E (9) SF no. 83.231
         L 4.5 cm

Side fr., with shoulder-lug; impressed ovules on shoulder. Buff clay; red slip. Plus fr., not illustrated, from Context G 10/83 CC18 C (14) 83-224.

Pl. 120

 

image from lamps report

121. G 10/85 X 21 P (2)
         L 4.9 cm

Front left shoulder, nozzle and discus fr.; impressed ovules on shoulder. Discus: short rays at edge.
Pink clay; red slip.

Pl. 121

Lamps of the Late First Century to the Mid-Second Century AD

Standard Italian Loeschcke Type VIII lamps of Bailey Type P, group i (earlier, deep, form)

The Standard Italian Loeschcke Type VIII lamp was a product mainly of the prolific central Italian workshops, probably centred on Rome, and was made in much the same form for over a century (my restricted dating in Bailey 1980, pp 314-6 has been shown to be too short by Pavolini's discussion of Late Vogelkopflampen (Pavolini 1980): the latter type of lamp was produced by many of the same makers of Standard Italian Loeschcke Type VIII lamps (Pavolini 1980, Tabella I). A wide date from about AD 80 until near the end of the second century for these lamps can be given, but the deeper lamps with a good glossy slip in this group are likely to be earlier than the shallow versions with a thin matt slip described later. The lamps have a circular body and a short rounded U-shaped nozzle with a transverse offset from the shoulder; Shoulder-forms VIIa or VIIb are most common and the shoulders are plain with no decoration: in this they differ from both earlier and later lamps of Loeschcke Type VIII; the lamps stand on a slightly raised circular base and a ring-handle is almost invariably found; some are signed by makers using the tria nomina. The fabrics are the usual central Italian buff clays with slips ranging from orange to dark brown, almost black. Two hundred and forty-three lamps from Via Gabina 10 appear to be Standard Italian Loeschcke Type VIII lamps of the earlier form, but there is a possibility that some of the lamp fragments listed here could be of the contemporary Loeschcke Type V. This group of Standard Italian lamps starts about AD 80 and probably goes no later than about AD 160.

Several of these lamps are decorated and the figure-types include a bust of Jupiter with his eagle (125); a head of Pan (132); two men playing a board-game (131); crescents (123-4); dolphins (133); scallop-shells (126-30: 129 may have rather a rosette); rosettes (two uncatalogued frr); wreaths (two uncatalogued frr); bands of rays (two uncatalogued frr).

The inscriptions and marks found on these lamps are more fully discussed below, but include makers' names, mouldmarks (workshop control marks usually incised into particular moulds) and anepigraphic stamps. Makers' names found are MV NSVC (139), MVNTR EPT (138), NNAEV (137), C.OPPI.RES (135-6), .SV (140), DII? (141), L (uncatalogued fr.), illegible (two uncatalogued frr); mouldmarks include the name AMIL (122), and a trident (134); stamps consist of a footprint (122) and a ring-and-dot pattern (uncatalogued fr.).

image from lamps report

image from lamps report

image from lamps report

122. G 10/85 DD 21 East N (4) SF no. 85.269
         L 12.6 cm, W 8.9 cm

Almost complete: nozzle broken. Ring-handle; raised circular base; air-hole. Discus: plain. Plain footprint stamp within base; adjacent mouldmark: AMIL retrograde in relief.
Buff clay; red-brown slip.

Fig. 24; Pl. 122a, b

 

image from lamps report

123. G 10/84 CC 22 (9) 090 SF no. 84.76 + CC 22 (9) 009 SF no. 84.242 joined
         L 9.1 cm

Top fr. with ring-handle. Air-hole. Discus: crescent, with star between horns.
Buff clay; black slip. For figure-type, compare Deneauve 1969, pl. LXX, 740, on a Standard Italian Loeschcke Type lamp from Carthage.

Pl. 123

 

image from lamps report

124. G 10/81 BB 20 South Z (4) SF no. 81.120
         L 4.0 cm

Left front top fr. with nozzle. Discus: crescent.
Buff clay; orange slip. Not same Series as last.

Pl. 124

 

image from lamps report

125. G 10/85 AA 22 C (2) SF no. 85.110
         L 5.5 cm

Right rear fr. Discus: part of Jupiter's head, his staff, and wing-tip of his eagle.
Buff clay; brown slip. For similar figure-types. see Bailey ii, p. 9

Pl. 125

 

image from lamps report

126. G 10/84 CC 22 (4) 009 SF no. 84.225
         L 8.4 cm

Right side fr. Discus: scallop-shell.
Buff clay; red slip. A very common figure-type throughout the Empire: for Italian examples see Bailey ii, p. 85; for provincial lamps with this device see Bailey iii, pp 86-7.

Pl. 126

 

image from lamps report

127. G 10/82 X 16 A (3) SF no. 82.330
         L 5.0 and 5.2 cm

Right and left side frr, non-joining. Discus: scallop-shell.
Buff clay; brown slip.

Pl. 127

 

image from lamps report

128. G 10/82 CC 22 (1) SF no. 82.202
         L 2.8 cm

Side fr. Discus: scallop-shell.
Buff clay; red slip.

Pl. 128

 

image from lamps report

129. G 10/80 BB 9 G (2) SF no. 80.169
         L 5.0 cm

Side fr. Discus: scallop-shell or rosette.
Buff clay; brown slip.

Pl. 129

 

image from lamps report

130. G 10/82 W 15 (2) SF no. 82.107
         W 4.1 cm

Discus fr.: scallop-shell.
Buff clay; red-brown slip.

Pl. 130

 

image from lamps report

131. G 10/84 BB 22 (4) 031 SF no. 84.206
         L 9.2 cm

Top fr. with ring-handle. Discus: two men at board-game, one clean-shaven, the other bearded; there appears to be a dispute in progress.
Buff clay; dark brown slip.

Pl. 131

 

image from lamps report

132. G 10/84 DD 20 0 (4) 007 SF no. 84.71
         W 5.9 cm

Discus fr.: head of Pan.
Buff clay; dark brown slip. Compare the Italian fragment Bailey ii, Q 1130.

Pl. 132

 

image from lamps report

133. G 10/84 CC 22 (9) 009 SF no. 84.245
         L 5.5 cm

Front left fr. Discus: one of a pair of crossed dolphins.
Buff clay; red slip. For figure-type, compare Deneauve 1969, pl. LIV, 529, on an Italian Loeschcke Type IV lamp from Carthage.

Pl. 133

 

image from lamps report

image from lamps report


134. G 10/88 BB 15 South A (2)
         L 5.2 cm

Nozzle fr. with trident mouldmark under.
Buff clay; brown slip.

 

Fig. 25; Pl. 134

 

image from lamps report

image from lamps report


135. G 10/80 X 18 B (5) SF no. 80.63
         W 3.7 cm

Base fr.: C.OPPI.RES incuse.
Buff clay; red slip.

Fig. 26; Pl. 135

 

image from lamps report

image from lamps report


136. G 10/82 CC 22 A (2) SF no. 82.287
         W 2.3 cm

Base fr.: COP PIRES incuse.
Buff clay; brown slip.

Fig. 27; Pl. 136

 

image from lamps report

image from lamps report


137. G 10/83 DD 19 (4) SF no. 83.220
         W 3.5 cm

Base fr.: NNAEV incuse.
Buff clay; brown slip.

Fig. 28; Pl. 137

 

image from lamps report

image from lamps report


138. G 10/81 DD 18 West G (5) SF no. 81.90
         L 4.6 cm

Base fr.: MVNTR EPT incuse.
Buff clay; brown slip.

 

Fig. 29; Pl. 138

 

image from lamps report

image from lamps report


139. G 10/84 BB 23 V (2) SF no. 84.110
         L 5.0 cm

Base fr.: MV NSVC incuse, with incuse leaf below.
Buff clay; brown slip.

 

Fig. 30; Pl. 139

 

image from lamps report

image from lamps report


140. G 10/85 AA 16 (1) SF no. 85.45
         L 2.5 cm

Base fr.: .SV incuse.
Buff clay; brown slip.

Fig. 31; Pl. 140

 

image from lamps report

image from lamps report


141. G 10/82 W 15 A (4) SF no. 82.418
         W 2.2 cm

Base fr.: ]DII[? incuse. Perhaps MA]DIE[C, but the E is most uncertain.
Buff clay; brown slip.


Plus 41 ring-handle frr (not illustrated), from Contexts

G 10/79 P 12 A (4) SF no. 79.4; G 10/80 BB 9 G (6)? SF no. 80.202; G 10/80 BB 9 N (2) SF no. 80.74; G 10/80 BB 12 M (3) SF no. 80.78; G 10/80 BB 12 M (4) SF no. 80.84; G 10/81 BB 22 A (4) SF no. 81.84; G 10/81 CC 15 West A (3) SF no. 81.192?; G 10/82 U 21 South M (4) SF no. 82.278?; G 10/82 U 21 South M (4) SF no. 82.288; G 10/82 W 15 (3) SF no. 82.148; G 10/83 U 20 B (2) SF no. 83.68; G 10/83 CC 15 A (1) SF no. 83.122; G 10/83 CC 18 C (5) SF no. 83.226; G 10/83 CC 22 A (1) SF no. 83.114; G 10/83 DD 16 G (6) SF no. 83.129; G 10/83 DD 19 (7) SF no. 83.220; G 10/83 DD 22 unstrat. SF no. 83.270; G 10/83 EE 22 C (9) SF no. 83.180; G 10/83 EE 22 C (11) SF no. 83.184; G 10/83 EE 22 C (14) SF no. 83.126; G 10/83 EE 22 C (22) SF no. 83.201; G 10/84 BB 23 (4) 031; G 10/84 BB 29 W (3); G 10/84 CC 22 (9) 010 SF no. 84.76; G 10/84 DD 20 0 (4) 007 SF no. 84.72; G 10/85 AA 22 C (2) SF no. 85.114; G 10/85 AA 22 C (2) SF no. 85.116; G 10/85 AA 22 C (2) SF no. 85.147; G 10/85 AA 22 G (2) SF no. 85.149 (rosette on discus); G 10/86 Y 23 D (5); G 10/87 Z 21/22 R (2); G 10/87 AA 23 C (4) (3 examples); G 10/87 AA 23 C (4) SF no. 87.16; G 10/87 AA 23 C (4) SF no. 87.18; G 10/87 AA 23 C (4) SF no. 87.27; G 10/87 AA 23 C (4); G 10/87 BB 21 E (5) DRN SF no. 87.334; G 10/88 DD 12 CUN 440 (1); G 10/88 U 16 O (3).


Plus 21 nozzle frr (not illustrated), from Contexts

G 10/80 X 18 A (7) SF no. 80.93; G 10/80 X 18 S (7) SF no. 80.54; G 10/80 BB 9 G (2) SF no. 80.167; G 10/80 BB 12 M (3) SF no. 80.79; G 10/81 CC 15 West A (9); G 10/82 T 13 (3) SF no. 82.23; G 10/82 T 18 G (4) SF no. 82.94 + T 18 G (5) SF no. 82.40 (same lamp: non-joining); G 10/83 U 20 E (3) SF no. 83.212; G 10/83 DD 16 D (7) SF no. 83.170; G 10/83 DD 19 (7) SF no. 83.220; G 10/83 DD19 (10) 83-179 (possibly Broneer Type XXI); G 10/83 EE22 C (24) SF no. 83.167; G 10/84 A 22 (9) SF no. 84.241; G 10/84 BB 12 A (8); G 10/84 BB 23 V (3); G 10/84 BB 23 V (6); G 10/86 Y 23 P (5); G 10/87 T 18 B (2); G 10/87 AA 23 C (4); G 10/88 W 15 B (4); G 10/88 Z 15 (3) SF no. 88.42

A few of these may be from volute-lamps.

Plus 89 shoulder and discus frr (not illustrated), from Contexts

G 10/80 X18 A (7) 80-97; G 10/80 X18 A (7) 80-98; G 10/80 X18 S (7) 80-119; G 10/80 X18 Z (7) 80-99; G 10/80 BB4 E (2) 80-173; G 10/80 BB9 G (1) 80-189; G 10/80 BB9 G (2) 80-97; G 10/80 BB9 G (2) 80-145; G 10/80 BB9 G (2) 80-168; G 10/80 BB9 G (3) 80-114; G 10/80 BB9 G (4) 80-131; G 10/80 BB9 G (5) 80-232; G 10/80 BB12 M (3) 80-70; G 10/80 BB12 M (3) 80-124; G 10/80 BB12 M (4) 80-86; G 10/80 BB12 M (5) 80-125; G 10/80 BB12 M (5) 80-126; G 10/80 BB16 F Surface; G 10/80 80-126; G 10/81 S14 (1) 81-6; G 10/81 S 14 (1) 81-70; G 10/81 BB23 W (3); G 10/81 CC15 West A (3) 81-186; G 10/81 EE17 North (2) 81-106; G 10/82 S14 Y (3) 82-291; G 10/82 W15 (3); G 10/82 BB22/B/CC22 Ca (2) 82-270; G 10/82 CC22 82-243; G 10/82 CC22 A (3); G 10/82 CC22 A (4) 82-413; G 10/82 DD16 West G (8) 82-113; G 10/82 EE22 Q (4) 82-93; G 10/83 U20 E (3) 83-192; G 10/83 X12 S (2); G 10/83 CC18 C (5) 83-225 (band of rays); G 10/83 CC20 (2) 83-120 (wreath); G 10/83 CC22 E (9) 83-251; G 10/83 CC22 L (1) 83-200; G 10/83 DD19 (6) 83-235; G 10/83 DD19 (7) 83-264 (wreath); G 10/83 DD21 A (3) 83-190; G 10/83 EE22 C (1) 83-51; G 10/83 EE22 C (25) 83-171; G 10/84 BB23 (9) 031; G 10/84 BB23 A (3) (band of rays); G 10/84 BB23 V (3) (4 examples, one with a band of rays); G 10/84 CC22 (4) 010; G 10/84 CC22 (9) 009; G 10/84 DD20 D (4) 007; G 10/84 DD20 D (4) 007 84-66; G 10/84 Cleanup (1); G 10/85 X21 Feature 142 (2) 85-51; G 10/85 Y23 (1); G 10/85 AA22 (1); G 10/85 AA22 C (2) 85-108; G 10/85 AA22 C (2) 85-113; G 10/85 AA22 C (2) 85-118 (rosette); G 10/85 AA22 C (2) 85-125; G 10/85 AA22 C (2) 85-128; G 10/85 AA22 C (2) 85-150; G 10/85 AA22 C (2) 85-156 (wreath); G 10/85 BB8 C (6) 85-74; G 10/85 EE16 (6) 85-43; G 10/85 EE16 (7) 85-88; G 10/86 Y26 C (3) (band of rays); G 10/86 DD15 A (2); G 10/87 Z21-22 R (3); G 10/87 AA23 C (4) (6 examples, one with a wreath); G 10/87 BB21 S (2); G 10/88 V16 U (2); G 10/88 W6 E (5); G 10/88 W15 Y (4) (2 examples); G 10/88 W18 N (2); G 10/88 X16 Y (3); G 10/88 BB15 South A (2); G 10/88 CC15 (1); G 10/88 DD12 CUN 440 (2); G 10/89 DD12 CUN 440 (1).

Plus 72 base frr (not illustrated), from Contexts

G 10/80 X 18 B (5) SF no. 80.118 (with last letter of maker's name: L); G 10/80 X 18 T (7) SF no. 80.116; G 10/80 X 18 T (7) SF no. 80.117; G 10/80 BB 9 E (2) SF no. 80.47; G 10/80 BB 9 G (1) SF no. 80.213; G 10/80 BB 9 G (2) SF no. 80.97?; G 10/80 BB 12 M (4) SF no. 80.85; G 10/80 BB 12 M (6) SF no. 80.136; G 10/80 BB 12 S (2) SF no. 80.205; G 10/81 V 23 N (3) SF no. 81.33; G 10/81 CC 15 West (1) SF no. 81.208 (with tip of handle-spine); G 10/81 CC 15 West A (3) SF no. 81.188 (with illegible maker's name); G 10/81 CC 15 West A (4) (2 examples); G 10/81 DD 18 West G (5) SF no. 81.90; G 10/82 U 22 D (4) SF no. 82.385; G 10/82 W 15 A (5) SF no. 82.400; G 10/82 X 16 (3) SF no. 82.322; G 10/82 X 16 (3) SF no. 82.357; G 10/82 BB 22 B CC 22 A (2) SF no. 82.386; G 10/82 CC 19 D (6) S B OO19 S SF no. 82.351; G 10/82 CC 22 A (2) SF no. 82.234; G 10/82 DD 19 N (4) SF no. 82.280; G 10/82 DD 19 East N (4) SF no. 82.228 (with tip of handle-spine); G 10/82 DD 19 East N (4) SF no. 82.229; G 10/82 EE 23 A (4) SF no. 82.213; G 10/82 GG 27 East A (2) SF no. 82.331; G 10/83 U 20 B (4) SF no. 83.220; G 10/83 U 20 E (3) SF no. 83.207; G 10/83 CC 22 A (3) SF no. 83.386; G 10/83 CC 22 L (1) SF no. 83.200; G 10/83 CC 24 A (2) SF no. 83.45; G 10/83 DD 19 (7) SF no. 83.213 (beginning or end of maker's name); G 10/83 EE 22 C (22) SF no. 83.147; G 10/83 EE 22 C (24) SF no. 83.158; G 10/83 EE 22 C (25) SF no. 83.169; G 10/84 BB 23 (5) 040; G 10/84 BB 23 U (3) (with tip of handle-spine); G 10/84 BB 23 V (2); G 10/84 BB 23 V (3) (2 examples); G 10/84 CC 22 (4) 009; G 10/84 CC 22 (9) 009 (3 examples); G 10/84 CC 22 (9) 010; G 10/84 CC 22 (9) 010 SF no. 84.203; G 10/84 DD 1 D (12); G 10/84 DD 16 C (3) 19; G 10/84 DD 18 A (8); G 10/85 Y 23 P (2) SF no. 85.138; G 10/85 AA 22 C (2) SF no. 85.117 (2 examples: not same lamp); G 10/85 AA 22 C (2) SF no. 85.120; G 10/85 AA 22 C (2) SF no. 85.124; G 10/85 BB 18 P (6); G 10/87 Z 21/22 R (2) (2 examples); G 10/87 Z 21/22 R (3) (3 examples); G 10/87 AA 19/20 South S (4); G 10/87 AA 23 C (3); G 10/87 AA 23 C (4) (3 examples); G 10/88 X 16 Y (2); G 10/88 X 16 Y (3); G 10/88 BB 15 South A (2); G 10/88 BB 15 South A (4) (with incuse ring-and-dot below tip of handle-spine); G 10/88 CC 15 (1); G 10/89 AA 13 A (3)

Several of these could be from volute-lamps.
 
Fig. 32; Pl. 141

Loeschcke Type VIII lamps of Bailey Type P, group iii

The lamp fragments of this group are close to the Standard Italian lamp but are furnished with a decorative lug on the shoulder (which survives only on lamp 144); they tend also be shallow and to have narrow shoulders. The three lamps of this group included here are likely to be of central Italian manufacture and date to the later years of the first century AD and the first quarter of the second century. All have a wreath on the discus, and that of 142 has part of a dramatic mask at its top: the others may well have had such a mask (compare Bailey ii, Q 1325).

image from lamps report
142. G 10/83 CC 22 E (4?) SF no. 83.256 + G 10/84 DD 20 G? (4) 007 SF no. 84.93 joined
         W 6.3 cm

Discus fr. with wreath round raised circle: comic mask of a slave at top, the mouth only surviving.
Pink-buff clay; red slip.

Pl. 142

 

image from lamps report

143. G 10/84 BB 23 V (3) SF no. 84.173
         L 3.5 cm

Shoulder and discus fr. as last, with wreath. Shoulder-form VIIIb.
Pink-buff clay; red slip.

Pl. 143

 

image from lamps report

144. G 10/83 EE 22 C (8) SF no. 83.46
         L 4.2 cm

Shoulder and discus fr. Shoulder-form VIIb, with shoulder-lug. Discus: wreath.
Burnt buff clay; brown slip

Pl. 144

Near Standard Italian Loeschcke Type VIII

The first of the two lamps included here is not far off in its shape from the Standard Italian lamps, but it has more grooves round the discus than is usual, and it stands on a base-ring rather than the normal slightly raised circular base. The fabric, too, differs markedly from the usual central Italian clay. It is, however, probably of Italian manufacture, and is of the second century AD The discus is decorated with three comic masks. Lamp fragment 146, signed LMAD , also differs somewhat from the standard form, but L Munatius Adiectus certainly made lamps of that form, about AD 90-130.

image from lamps report
145. G 10/87 Z 21/22 R (2)
         L 8.0 cm, W 6.3 cm

Front and nozzle lost; ring-handle; base-ring. Shoulder-form VIa. Discus: three dramatic (comic) masks, one largely lost.
Red, micaceous clay; red slip traces. For figure-type, compare Bailey ii, Q 1326.

Pl. 145

 

image from lamps report

image from lamps report


146. G 10/83 EE 22 C (12) SF no. 83.125
         L 3.3 cm

Small, slightly sunken base fr.: LMAD incuse.
Buff clay; thin orange slip.

 

Fig. 33; Pl. 146

Near Standard Italian Loeschcke Type VIII lamps

These two fragments have many of the characteristics of Standard Italian Loeschcke Type VIII lamps but have (in one case, but probably in both) lateral handles at the rear in place of the normal ring-handles. These transverse handles are very much like those of Late Vogelkopflampen, as lamps 80-85 above; like the latter also, one of these lamps, 148, is unslipped. They probably date between about AD 80 and 150.

image from lamps report

 

147. G 10/83 EE 22 C (19) SF no. 83.150
         L 6.4 cm

Rear and right side fr.; raised base. Shoulder-form VIIb. Buff clay; red-brown slip.

Pl. 147

 

image from lamps report

148. G 10/84 B C 18 (5) 021
         L 7.2 cm

Right side fr. with part of nozzle. Shoulder-form VIIb. Plain discus. Buff clay, unslipped.

Pl. 148

Lamps of the mid-second to the late second century AD

Standard Italian Loeschcke Type VIII lamps of Bailey Type P, group i (later shallow, form, in buff clays with thin matt light orange slip)

The thirty-four lamps and fragments of this group are very much the same as those in the immediately preceding section but are generally later in date, probably being made within the period AD 150 to 190. They are, on the whole, much more shallow in depth than the earlier examples and the good orange to red to brown slips have been replaced by a matt slip, rather thin and of a pale orange colour. All the examples listed here are of Shoulder-form VIIa and several have a decorated discus. The figure-types include an emperor's portrait (or perhaps a head of Hercules (153), lovers on a bed (149), a cockerel with a victory palm (152), a rosette (150), and perhaps a wreath (151). Makers' names are also found: FABRICAGAT together with a plain footprint stamp (149); LFAB (150); LFAMAS (155); BRIC (156); IN (154); uncertain initial letter (uncatalogued fr.).

image from lamps report

image from lamps report

image from lamps report

149. G 10/83 EE 22 C (24) SF no. 83.142
         L 12.9 cm, W 9.2 cm

Complete; ring-handle; raised circular base. Discus: lovers on a bed. FABRICAGAT incuse within base; incuse footprint stamp adjacent.

 

Fig. 34; Pl. 149a, b

 

image from lamps report

image from lamps report


150. G 10/85 BB 17 X (3)
         L 7.6 cm

Rear right fr. with part of raised base and ring-handle. Discus: four-leaved rosette. LFAB incuse within base. For figure-type, compare Bailey ii, Q 1417.

Fig. 35; Pl. 150

 

image from lamps report

151. G 10/84 CC 22 (9) 009 SF no. 84.226
         L 7.1 cm

Right front fr. Discus: uncertain (wreath?).

 

Pl. 151

 

image from lamps report

152. G 10/84 CC 22 E (9) SF no. 84.40
         L 9.5 cm

Most of top survives, including ring-handle and nozzle. Discus: victorious cock. For cockerels with a victory palm, compare Bailey ii, Q 825 and Bailey iii, Q 1550.

Pl. 152

 

image from lamps report

153. G 10/84 BB 23 V (2)
         L 2.5 cm

Discus fr.: portrait of a bearded emperor or, less likely, a head of Hercules. For figure-type, compare Bailey ii, Q 1311.

Pl. 153

 

image from lamps report

image from lamps report


154. G 10/84 CC 22 E (9) SF no. 84.39
         W 4.4 cm

Raised base fr.: IN incuse.

 

Fig. 36; Pl. 154

 

image from lamps report

image from lamps report


155. G 10/81 CC 15 West A (3) SF no. 81.190
         W 5.4 cm

Raised base fr.: LFAMAS incuse.

Fig. 37; Pl. 155

 

image from lamps report

image from lamps report


156. G 10/81 BB 20 South Z (5) SF no. 81.183
         L 4.3 cm

Raised base fr.: BRIC incuse.

Plus 6 handle frr (not illustrated), from Contexts

G 10/80 BB 12 (1) SF no. 80.18
G 10/82 T 18 A (3) SF no. 82.20
G 10/83 EE 22 C (15) SF no. 83.274
G 10/84 DD 16 C (2) SF no. 84.115
G 10/84 DD 20 D (4) 007 SF no. 84.66
G 10/88 W 15 B (4)


Plus 5 nozzle frr (not illustrated), from Contexts

G 10/82 X16 A (2) SF no. 82.385
G 10/83 CC 15 A (1) SF no. 83.121
G 10/84 CC 22 E (9) SF no. 84.34
G 10/84 DD 20 O (3)
G 10/87 Z 21/22 R (2)


Plus 8 shoulder frr (not illustrated), from Contexts

G 10/80 BB 9 G (5) SF no. 80.231
G 10/81 CC 15 West A (3) SF no. 81.189
G 10/81 unstrat. SF no. 81.159
G 10/82 DD 19 East (1)
G 10/83 EE 22 C (11) SF no 83.146
G 10/84 BB 23 (2) SF no. 84.111 (with base and nozzle)
G 10/84 DD 20 O (2)
G 10/85 BB 18 Ac (3)


Plus 7 Base frr (not illustrated), from Contexts

G 10/80 BB 12 M (2) SF no. 80.50
G 10/81 CC 15 West A (4) (with part of the first incuse letter of a maker's name)
G 10/81 EE 23 C (1) SF no. 81.210
G 10/83 EE 22 C (12) SF no. 83.124
G 10/84 BB 23 V (3)
G 10/84 CC 23 (9) 009 SF no. 84.77
G 10/88 V 16 E (2)

 

Fig. 38; Pl. 156

 

Lamps of the mid-second to the first quarter of the third century AD

Late Italian Loeschcke Type VIII lamps of Bailey Type Q, group i

From the middle years of the second century AD the Standard Italian Loeschcke Type VIII lamp was paralleled by and eventually superseded by somewhat similar lamps that are best described as Late Italian Loeschcke Type VIII lamps. These lamps follow the shallowness of the later Standard Italian lamps but, unlike the Standard form, often have shoulders that are decorated, with relief or incuse patterns, and nozzles that are usually heart-shaped in plan; most have base-rings rather than the raised circular bases of the earlier lamps. The Standard Italian Loeschcke Type VIII lamps are usually much of a size, although the occasional very large example can be met with; the Late Italian Loeschcke Type VIII lamps normally come in three sizes, large, medium and small. The fabrics are buff clays with thin orange or red slips, often matt; some are not slipped at all. The majority of those found in the Via Gabina villas are of central Italian manufacture. Lamps 157-63, twenty-five in number, of Bailey 1980 Type Q, group i, are large lamps with wide relief-tendrilled shoulders, ring-handles, raised bases, and U-shaped or heart-shaped nozzles; the comparatively small discus is normally plain or has a rosette. The nozzle is set off from the shoulder by a curved segmented strip, or fringe, with looped ends; often a crater flanked by diminutive panthers is found in this position, but none of the Via Gabina lamps has this feature, although 157 may have the crater (it is very indistinct) without the panthers. This type of lamp is often signed, but only one base survives (on 157) and the incuse stamp is illegible to me. These lamps were made between about AD 150 and 225 and most of them are probably late within that period.

image from lamps report
157. G 10/84 DD 16 D (6) SF no. 84.214
         L 12.2 cm, W 8.9 cm

Almost complete: handle broken; heart-shaped nozzle. Discus: rosette. Illegible stamp within base.

 

Pl. 157

 

image from lamps report

158. No number
         L 10.0 cm

Rear right fr. with ring-handle; discus probably plain.

 

Pl. 158

 

image from lamps report

159. G 10/88 BB 15 South A (2)
         L 5.1 cm

Front left fr. Plain discus pierced by air-hole. U-shaped nozzle with fringe.

Pl. 159

 

image from lamps report

160. G 10/82 BB 22 B CC 22 E (5) SF no. 82.358
         L 5.0 cm Pl. 160

Front left fr. Plain discus. U-shaped nozzle with fringe.

Pl. 160

 

image from lamps report

161. G 10/80 BB 12 D (1) SF no. 80.37
         L 6.7 cm

Left fr. Plain discus. Fringe at base of nozzle.

Pl. 161

 

image from lamps report

162. G 10/88 W 17 N (2)
         L 5.4 cm

Shoulder and discus fr. Plain discus.

Pl. 162

 

image from lamps report

163. G 10/83 DD 19 (10) SF no. 83.218
         W 2.2 cm

Shoulder and discus fr. Discus: rosette.

 
Plus 6 shoulder and discus (all plain) frr (not illustrated), from Contexts

G 10/80 BB 12 D (1) SF no. 80.37 (not same lamp as 161)
G 10/80 BB 12 M (3) SF no. 80.56
G 10/82 DD 19 East M (3)
G 10/83 U 20 E (2) SF no. 83.188
G 10/84 V 23 N (2) SF no. 84.46
G 10/88 BB 15 South A (2)


Plus 2 shoulder frr (not illustrated), from Contexts

G 10/80 X 18 T (7) SF no. 80.75
G 10/88 BB 15 South A (2)


Plus 10 handle frr (all from lamps with a plain discus; not illustrated), from Contexts

G 10/80 BB 12 D (1) SF no. 80.21
G 10/81 BB 12 (2) SF no. 81.9
G 10/81 BB 20 South (1)
G 10/81 DD 15 A (13) SF no. 81.216
G 10/82 DD 9 64 SF no. 82.226
G 10/85 AA 22 (1) SF no. 85.19
G 10/85 AA 22 O (6) SF no. 85.82
G 10/87 T 18 H (3)
G 10/88 BB 15 South A (2) (2 examples)
G 10/88 BB 15 South A (2) SF no. 88.51

 

Pl. 163

 

Lamps of the last third of the second century to the middle of the third century AD

Late Italian Loeschcke Type VIII lamps of Bailey Type Q, groups iv and v

Lamps of these groups, small and large, have plain shoulders, heart-shaped nozzles, ring-handles, and base-rings. They are of buff clays, with a thin orange slip or no slip. Ten such lamps and fragments were found and they date from the late Antonine period until about the middle of the third century AD Discus decorations include a victorious charioteer in a four-horsed chariot (165), part of an erotic scene (164) and animal's feet (166 and an uncatalogued fr.). The stamps of two makers are found: FLORENT on 167, and LMARMI on 165.

image from lamps report
164. G 10/83 DD 19 D (3) SF no. 83.118?
         W 4.6 cm

Front right fr. Discus: erotic scene with kneeling woman?

Pl. 164

 

image from lamps report

image from lamps report


165. G 10/81 EE 23 C (2) SF no. 81.162
         L 10.0 cm, W 8.0 cm

Almost complete: nozzle broken. Discus: victorious quadriga. LMARMI incuse within base; ring-and-dot above and below. Very close to Bailey ii, Q 1366, signed ERACLID

Pl. 165a, b

 

image from lamps report

166. G 10/86 Y 21 V (4)
         W 3.4 cm

Nozzle and discus fr. Discus: foot of animal?

Pl. 166

 

image from lamps report

image from lamps report


167. G 10/81 DD 15 A (3) SF no. 81.215
         W 5.5 cm

Rear fr., with ring-handle. FLORENT incuse within base.


Plus 4 discus and shoulder frr (not illustrated), from Contexts

G 10/82 DD 22 N (5) SF no. 82.275
G 10/83 DD 21 (1) SF no. 83.148 (with animal hoof)
G 10/86 AA 22 F (5)
G 10/87 Z 21/22 R (3)


Plus 2 handle frr (not illustrated), from Contexts

G 10/84 DD 20 D (3)
G 10/84 DD 20 D (3) SF no. 84.229

Fig. 40; Pl. 167

 

Late Italian Loeschcke Type VIII lamps of Bailey Type Q, groups viii and ix

Some eighteen lamps from Via Gabina 10 fall into these groups, of medium-sized and small lamps, all with decorated shoulders, heart-shaped nozzles and ring-handles; both base-rings and raised circular bases are found. Again, the clays are buff with a thin orange slip or no slip. Shoulder decorations include incuse ovules, and bound and unbound wreaths in relief. Only a few decorated discuses survive, the figure-types including ?Fortuna with a cornucopia (176), Aeneas carrying Anchises and leading his son Ascanius as he flees from Troy (175) and possibly a human leg (170). Three lamps have makers' stamps, two illegible (175-6) and one with the initial letter L of the name (174). The date-range of the lamps is from the late Antonine period until the middle years of the third century AD

image from lamps report
168. G 10/84 DD 20 O (2)
         W 4.5 cm

Shoulder and handle fr. Incuse ovules on shoulder.

Pl. 168

 

image from lamps report

169. G 10/85 BB 18 A (2) SF no. 85.50
         W 4.1 cm

Shoulder and handle fr. Incuse ovules on shoulder.


Plus 3 shoulder frr with incuse ovules (not illustrated), from Contexts

G 10/80 BB 9 (1)
G 10/85 DD 15 K (3) Feature 132
G 10/88 CC 15 (1)

Pl. 169

 

image from lamps report

170. G 10/87 Z 21/22 R (2) SF no. 87.60
         L 6.8 cm

Left and right frr, non-joining. Bound wreath on shoulder. Discus: uncertain (human leg?).

Pl. 170

 

image from lamps report

171. G 10/86 Y 25 North B (2)
         L 5.9

Right shoulder fr.: bound wreath; part of scene at discus-edge.

Pl. 171

 

image from lamps report

172. G 10/81 DD 18 West F (4)
         L 4.8 cm

Right shoulder fr.: bound wreath.

Pl. 172

 

image from lamps report

173. G 10/87 Z 21/22 R (3)
         L 4.5 cm

Left shoulder fr.: bound wreath.

Pl. 173

 

image from lamps report

image from lamps report


174. G 10/83 EE 22 C (29) SF no. 83.266
         Nozzle L 2.3 cm, base L 2.8 cm

Nozzle and base frr, non-joining. Bound wreath on shoulder. Incuse name within base-ring: L

Fig. 41; Pl. 174

 

image from lamps report

175. G 10/80 X 18 E (3) SF no. 80.20
         L 11.1 cm , W 8.1 cm

Almost complete; wreath on shoulder. Discus: Aeneas leaving Troy, with Anchises and Ascanius. Raised base with illegible stamp. Close to Bailey ii, Q 1394, signed CIVLPHI.

Pl. 175

 

image from lamps report

176. G 10/80 BB 12 E (2) SF no. 80.22
         L 10.9 cm

Discus and right side mostly lost; wreath on shoulder. Discus: possibly head of Fortuna with cornucopia. Illegible stamp within base. Compare perhaps Bailey ii, Q 1395, a lamp of the same type, signed ANNAMMEA. Alternatively, it could show Apollo with a lyre as on Heres 1972, pl. 47, 444, a similar lamp signed PASAVGV.

Pl. 176

 

image from lamps report

177. G 10/83 DD 21 East N (3) SF no. 83.252
         W 5.3 cm

Rear fr. with handle; wreath on shoulder.

Pl. 177

 

image from lamps report

178. G 10/87 AA 25 G (3)
         W 3.2 cm

Rear fr.with handle ; wreath on shoulder.

Pl. 178

 

image from lamps report

179. G 10/81 BB 12 (1) SF no. 81.21
         L 2.7 cm

Shoulder fr.: wreath.

Pl. 179

 

image from lamps report

180. G 10/84 DD 20 0 (3) SF no. 84.204
         L 3.0 cm

Shoulder fr.: wreath.

 
Plus 2 shoulder frr with wreaths (not illustrated), from Contexts

G 10/87 BB 21 E (5) 002 352
G 10/88 BB 15 South A (2)

Pl. 180

 

Late Italian Loeschcke Type VIII lamps of Bailey Type Q, group x

The lamps of this small group (seven were found at Via Gabina 10) have wide shoulders decorated with rows of closely spaced raised points, plain discs, heart-shaped nozzles, ring-handles and base-rings. They may not be earlier than Severan times and were perhaps made as late as the middle of the third century AD

image from lamps report
181. G 10/87 Z 21/22 R (2)
         L 8.4 cm

Rear right fr. with ring-handle.
Buff clay; thin orange slip.

Pl. 181

 

image from lamps report

182. G 10/82 EE 22 C (2) SF no. 82.60
         L 6.6 cm

Rear left fr. with ring-handle.
Buff clay; thin orange slip.

Pl. 182

 

image from lamps report

183. G 10/83 DD 21 East Y (6) SF no. 83.195
         W 4.5 cm

Rear left fr. with ring-handle.
Buff clay; thin orange slip.

Pl. 183

 

image from lamps report

184. G 10/80 X 18 R (4) SF no. 80.65
         W 3.9 cm

Nozzle fr.
Buff clay; thin orange slip.

 
Plus 3 shoulder frr (not illustrated), from Contexts

G 10/82 CC 22 (1) SF no. 82.242
G 10/82 DD 19 East M (3)
G 10/85 BB 17 Ac (3) SF no. 85.51

Pl. 184

 

Late Italian Loeschcke Type VIII lamps of Bailey Type Q, uncertain groups

Many fragments of Bailey Type Q lamps, all in the characteristic buff clays, with thin orange slips or no slip, cannot be placed with certainty in any of the groups described above and are listed here: a date between about AD 150 and 250 will cover them all, but it is not possible to get closer. Twenty-eight fragments are included, one of which bears the name of the lampmaker Saecularis (185) and two uncatalogued examples have parts of illegible stamps.

image from lamps report

image from lamps report

185. G 10/87 Z 21/22 R (2) SF no. 87.70
         W 2.5 cm

Fr. from within base: SAEC VL in relief.

Plus 10 handle frr (not illustrated), from Contexts

G 10/80 BB 9 G (5) SF no. 80.212
G 10/82 DD 19 O (2) SF no. 82.218
G 10/83 DD 19 (9) SF no. 83.146
G 10/83 EE 22 C (30) SF no. 83.265
G 10/85 Y 23 (1) SF no. 85.85
G 10/85 BB 12 A C (3)
G 10/86 Y 23 D (3)
G 10/86 Y 23 V (15) BB C 189 A
G 10/86 AA 24 A (3)
G 10/89 AA B (6)

Plus 2 nozzle frr (not illustrated), from Contexts

G 10/80 BB 12 M (2) SF no. 80.52
G 10/84 DD 20 O (3) SF no 84.58 A

Plus 15 ring-base frr (not illustrated), from Contexts

G 10/81 S 14 (1) SF no. 81.7
G 10/82 CC 22 A (2) SF no. 82.276
G 10/83 CC 20 (2) SF no. 83.254 (with part of illegible stamp)
G 10/83 EE22 C (13) SF no. 83.257
G 10/84 DD 20 O (3) SF no. 84.58 B
G 10/85 BB 18 Ac (3)
G 10/85 BB 18
G 10/85 CC 16 (1) (with part of illegible stamp)
G 10/87 Z 21/22 R (2) (3 examples)
G 10/87 Z 21/22 R (4)
G 10/88 W 19 A (4)
G 10/88 BB 15 South A (4)

Fig. 42; Pl. 185

 

Late Italian lamp of Loeschcke Type VIII

This single fragmentary lamp does not fit into any of the groups described above. It was very probably made in Italy, but not certainly so. A date of about AD 175 to 225 is likely.

image from lamps report

image from lamps report

186. G 10/89 S 14 F (2) SF no. 89.11
         L 6.0, W 6.3 cm

Rear fr., with ring-handle. Wide, rounded shoulders with deep radiating grooves. Small discus: narrow band of rays at edge. Small base-ring.
Buff clay; purple slip.

 

Pl. 186a, b

Corinthian lamp of Broneer Type XXVII

A small fragment of a lamp in a buff clay characteristic of Corinthian lamps of Broneer Type XXVII was found: its shoulder form and the neat ovules point to Broneer Type XXVIIC of about AD 150 to 250. For such lamps see Broneer 1930, pl. XII, and Bailey iii, pls 116-7.

image from lamps report
187. G 10/81 EE 17 North (2)
         L 2.7 cm

Shoulder fr. with small fine incuse ovules.
Buff clay, unslipped.

Pl. 187

Via Gabina, Site 11 Villa: The Lamps

WHEELMADE LAMPS

'Esquiline' Lamps

For lamps falling into this section, see Group 1 of the Via Gabina 10 lamps above. A date between about 180 and 50 BC seems likely. Four of the six fragments, including 3, are in buff clays with black glaze; 1 and 2 are unglazed and have pink-buff fabrics. All are of Italian manufacture.

image from lamps report

image from lamps report

1. G 11/79 K 17 C (2) 661
     L 6.0 cm W 4.9 cm

Rear top lost. Splayed nozzle; raised base, with string-marks under.
Pink-buff clay, unglazed.

Fig. 1; Pl. 1

 

image from lamps report

image from lamps report


2. G 11/79 H 16 A (3)
     L 4.6 cm

Right side fr. Nozzle-end lost, but part of wick-hole remains; raised, unturned base.
Pink-buff clay, unglazed.

Fig. 2; Pl. 2

 

image from lamps report

image from lamps report


3. G 11/80 J 15 (1) SF no. 80.3
     L 5.7 cm

Front fr., including splayed nozzle.
Buff clay; black glaze.


     
Plus 3 frr of splayed nozzles, in buff clays with black glaze, from Contexts

     G 11/76 H19 B B (6)
     G 11/78 or 79 L 2 E (1) 256
     G 11/79 SF no. 79.23

Fig. 3; Pl. 3

 

MOULDMADE LAMPS

Miscellaneous Shape

This single example, although mouldmade, was probably close in shape to 'Esquiline' lamps and may have had a biconical body with low-placed carination. A date in the first century BC is likely.

image from lamps report
4. G 11/79 K 19 B (2)
     L 3.7 cm

Nozzle fr.: flat top with incuse branch pattern between grooves; steeply sloping sides.
Buff clay; black glaze.

Pl. 4

Dressel Type 2

Warzenlampen of Dressel Type 2 are briefly discussed in Group 2 of the Via Gabina 10 lamps above: they have a long nozzle splayed at the tip, shoulders (and often the underside) decorated with closely spaced raised points, a lug at one side, an applied handle and they stand on a base-ring. The seven fragments from Via Gabina 11 are in buff, central Italian clays, with red or brown slips. They date between about 70 BC and AD 15.

image from lamps report
5. G 11/77 K 23 P (3) SF no. 77.55
     W 4.4 cm Pl. 5

Rear fr., handle lost. Globs above and below.

Pl. 5

 

image from lamps report

6. G 11/79 K 17 B (2) SF no. 79.6
     L 4.5 cm Pl. 6

Front right top fr., with base of nozzle. Air-hole.

Pl. 6

 

image from lamps report

image from lamps report

image from lamps report

image from lamps report

image from lamps report

 


7.-11.

5 frr: 2 with side lugs, 2 shoulder sherds, 1 discus fragment with raised rings, from Contexts G 11/76 I 19 G (5);304; G 11/77 E 12; G 11/79 I 16 A (3) 43; G 11/79 K 14 B K 18 K 14 East (1); G 11/79 K 15 B (2)
 
Pl. 7-11

Dressel Type 3

Lamps of Dressel Type 3 are also included in Group 2 of the Via Gabina 10 lamps: they are generally shallow with wide level discs capable of receiving a figured decoration; the nozzles are short, blunt and splayed, and the lamps normally have side-lugs and often an applied handle; they usually stand on base-rings and there are wide and a narrow versions. Dating between about 70 BC and AD 15, these seven fragments are central Italian products and have the buff clays and red or brown to dark brown slips normally associated with that area. Only one has a figure-type: a sphinx is depicted on 16. An uncertain name is impressed on Lamp 17 and the interpretation of it shown on Fig. 4 is not at all certain.

image from lamps report
12. G 11/79 H 15 A (3) 29
       L 5.4 cm

Shoulder fr. with lug.

Pl. 12

 

image from lamps report

13. G 11/77 H 18 B (2)
       L 4.2 cm

Shoulder fr. with lug.
Unslipped.

Pl. 13

 

image from lamps report

14. G 11/76 H 19 K 8 (5) 306
       L 3.1 cm

Shoulder fr. with lug; cable at edge of discus.

Pl. 14

 

image from lamps report

15. G 11/79 J 17/8/17 (1)
       L 2.6 cm

Small shoulder fr. with lug (under part only).

Pl. 15

 

image from lamps report

16. G 11/77 I 20 (5) SF no. 77.54 160?
       W 4.1 cm Pl. 16

Wide version: discus fr.: Sphinx.

Pl. 16

 

image from lamps report

image from lamps report


17. G 11/78 T 18 V (3) 557
       W 3.7 cm

Base-ring fr. with internal moulding. Incuse name: unread by me, but it includes a letter M.

 
Plus base-ring fr. with internal moulding, from Context G 11/77 Surface.
 
Fig. 4; Pl. 17

 

Dressel Type 4

Three fragments of Early Vogelkopflampen were found in Via Gabina 11. These lamps with blunt nozzles decorated with addorsed birds' heads are discussed in Pavolini 1981, pp 161-6 and 1980, pp 47-8. They appear to date from about 50 BC to AD 15. The Via Gabina examples are all Italian (they were copied elsewhere) and have buff clays with pale brown slips. Also included in this group are three applied handles broken from lamps of Dressel Types 1 to 4.

image from lamps report
18.G 11/79 J A B 17 (1)
       W 3.6 cm

Discus fr, with 'adjacent triangles' moulding.
Plus 2 nozzle frr, from Contexts
       G 11/76 F 21 West A (2)
       G 11/79 H 16 A (3) 49


Plus 3 handle frr from Dressel Types 1 to 4 lamps, from Contexts G 11/76 H 18 R B (6) P 137
       G 11/76 P 26 East P (7)
       G 11/77 L 18 A (2)
 
Pl. 18

 

Loeschcke Type I

First-century lamps of Loeschcke Type I are discussed in Group 3 of the Via Gabina 10 lamps. Eleven fragments of the Type IA (with Shoulder-form I) and IB (with Shoulder-form IIa) versions, in buff clays and red, brown and black slips, were found in Via Gabina 11, but none is worth illustrating or cataloguing.

Loeschcke Type IA

4 rim frr, from Contexts G 11/77 H 18 A (4); G 11/77 L 20 East B (4) (with band of rays at edge of discus); G 11/79 G 12 B (2) SF no. 79.61; G 11/79 H 17 B (3) SF no. 79.13; 1 nozzle fr., unnumbered; 1 base-ring fr., from Context G 11/77 L 18 B (3).

Loeschcke Type IB

4 rim frr, from Contexts G 11/76 C 19 N (4); G 11/77 K 19 B (3); G 11/77 L 20 E (4) SF no. 77.70 230; G 11/78 J 19 (7) C.S; 1 raised base fr., from Context G 11/76 G 19 H B (2) SF no. 76.24

Loeschcke Type IV or Broneer Type XXI

Fragments of the round-nozzled lamps of Loeschcke Type IV and of Broneer Type XXI are often very difficult to separate one from another: in many ways the latter type is only a more ornate and larger version of the former. The examples catalogued here have Shoulder-forms IIIa and IIIb. It is probable that 19-24 are of Loeschcke Type IV and 25-30 are of Broneer Type XXI: certainly the handle-ornament fragments 28-30 are of that type, as are probably the three uncatalogued base-ring fragments. Their date range in Italy is much the same, from Augustan times (or Tiberian in the case of Loeschcke Type IV) until well into the second century: all the fragments included here are Italian. The two types are discussed above in Via Gabina 10, Groups 4 and 5. Twenty-three fragments were found in Via Gabina 11. Decorations include a figure sacrificing at an altar (19), a desultor (21), parts of unidentified humans (20, 22), a crescent moon and a star (23), a pomegranate (24), and tongues and rays (25-7). The fragment 28 has the lower stem of a triangular handle-ornament that was decorated with a palmette and 29-30 are parts of crescent-shaped handle-ornaments.

image from lamps report
19. G 11/77 K 19 North A (3) SF no. 77.25
       W 4.2 cm

Discus fr.: figure sacrificing at altar.
Buff clay; red slip.

Pl. 19

 

image from lamps report

20. G 11/77 L 20 East B (9) 85
       W 3.5 cm

Discus fr.: man's legs.
Buff clay; brown slip. For figure-type, compare perhaps the satyr pounding in a mortar on Bailey ii, Q 815-6, both Italian Loeschcke Type IB lamps.

Pl. 20

 

image from lamps report

21. G 11/77 L 20 E (4) SF no. 77.79 135
       H 2.0 cm

Discus fr.: head and shoulders of desultor to right.
Buff clay; red slip. For figure-type, compare Farka 1977, pl. 55, 210, from the Magdalensberg.

Pl. 21

 

image from lamps report

22. G 11/79 K 17 B K 18 (1) SF no. 79.85
       H 1.5

Discus fr.: head and arms of a figure.
Buff clay; red slip.

Pl. 22

 

image from lamps report

23. G 11/79 H 17 B (3) 666
       H 3.0 cm

Discus fr.: crescent moon and star.
Buff clay; red slip.

Pl. 23

 

image from lamps report

24. G 11/79 H 17 (2)
       H 2.0 cm

Discus fr.: pomegranate.
Buff clay; red slip.

Pl. 24

 

image from lamps report

25. G 11/77 K 19 North A (3) SF no. 77.31
       H 3.0 cm

Discus fr.: tongues.
Buff clay; red slip.

Pl. 25

 

image from lamps report

26. G 11/77 J 20 (3)
       H 2.5 cm

Discus fr.: rays.
Buff clay; brown slip.

Pl. 26

 

image from lamps report

27. G 11/79 H 17 B (3) SF no. 79.71
       H 2.0 cm

Discus fr.: tongues.
Buff clay; red slip.

Pl. 27

 

image from lamps report

28. G 11/77 L 20 East A (2) SF no. 77.99 86
       H 3.0 cm

Rear rim and handle-ornament stem fr. with lower part of palmette.
Buff clay; thin orange slip.

Pl. 28

 

image from lamps report

29. G 11/77 I 18 East A/B (5)
       L 3.0 cm

Horn of crescent-shaped handle-ornament.
Buff clay, unslipped. Compare Via Gabina 10 55-57.

Pl. 29

 

image from lamps report

30. No number
       L 2.9 cm

Horn of crescent-shaped handle-ornament.
Pink clay; red slip.


Plus 6 nozzle frr, from Contexts G 11/76 J 19 B K 19 (5)
       G 11/78 J 19 (7) C.S
       G 11/78 L 22 A (4)
       G 11/79 F 14 (2)
       G 11/79 J 17 B K 17 C (2) SF no. 79.69 G 11/80 K 16 A (3) SF no. 80.16
 
Plus 2 shoulder frr, from Contexts G 11/77 K 20 East B 12 (3)
       G 11/78 J 18 A (4)

Plus 3 base-ring frr, from Contexts G 11/76 K 23 B L 23 (1)
       G 11/78 L 23 F (1)
       G 11/78 Z 24 B (2)

Plus 2 raised base frr, from Contexts G 11/79 H 17 B (3)
       G 11/79 K 17 B K 18 (1) SF no. 79.8
 
Pl. 30

 

Lug-Handled Lamps of Bailey Type G

This Neronian-Trajanic lamp type is discussed above as Via Gabina 10, Group 11. Only one very small fragment is included here and, like those from the other villa, it is undoubtedly Italian.

image from lamps report
31. G 11/78 L 19 C (2)
       L 3.6 cm

Right front fr. with nozzle-channel. Shoulder-form VIIb.
Buff clay; red slip.

Pl. 31

Central Italian Firmalampen of Loeschcke Type X

Seven fragments of the central Italian version of this initially north Italian lamp shape were found. Lamps 32 and 37 are probably earlier than the others, but no earlier than the beginning of the second century AD; the others date from mid-to-late Antonine times and may go into the Severan period: see Group 14 of the lamps from Via Gabina 10. The damaged base of Lamp 37 is probably signed PVLCHRI: some north Italian Firmalampen of Loeschcke Type X bear the name PVLLI (Buchi 1975, pl. XLIX, 960-61) but the buff clay and red slip of our example suggests a central Italian source, and Pulchri certainly made Firmalampen of central Italian appearance.

image from lamps report
32. G 11/78 K 20 B J 20 B (1)
       L 4.7 cm

Right front shoulder fr. with lug.
Buff clay; red slip.

Pl. 32

 

image from lamps report

33. G 11/77 I 20 East B (2)
       L 5.1 cm

Nozzle fr, left side.
Buff clay, matt orange slip.

Pl. 33

 

image from lamps report

34. G 11/77 L 20 East B (2)
       L 5.8 cm

Shoulder fr., probably from rear left side, with traces of lug and apparently no handle. Perhaps from same lamp as 33.
Buff clay, matt orange slip.

Pl. 34

 

image from lamps report

35. G 11/77 H 18 A (4)
       L 3.8 cm

Shoulder fr.
Buff clay; thin matt orange slip.

Pl. 35

 

image from lamps report

36. G 11/78 K 20 E (2)
       L 4.1 cm

Shoulder and discus fr. Late form, but not typical.
Buff clay; thin matt orange slip.

Pl. 36

 

image from lamps report

image from lamps report

 


37. G 11/78 J 19 B K 19 C (7) + J 19 B K 19 (5): non-joining
       W 1.5 cm and 2.8 cm

Base fr. with multiple base-ring. Name in relief: PVL CHR I.
Buff clay; red slip.


Plus 1 base fr. with a multiple base-ring, from Context G 11/79 H 16 B I 16 B (3) SF no. 79.79
 
Fig. 5; Pl. 37

 

Late Vogelkopflampen.

Late Vogelkopflampen are discussed in Group 13 of the Via Gabina 10 lamps. The twelve fragments (of eleven lamps) from Via Gabina 11 are, except for one uncatalogued sherd, all of the shallower form which is perhaps rather later than the deep variety; a second-century date will cover them all and they are all central Italian. As is normal with this type none of their buff fabrics has a slip coating.

image from lamps report
38. G 11/77 K 19 B (3) SF no. 77.69 255
       L 8.8 cm W 5.3 cm
Fragmentary.
 
Pl. 38

 

image from lamps report

39. G 11/78 I 21 B J 21 C (2)
       L 5.8 cm W 5.2 cm

Rear top fr.

Pl. 39

 

image from lamps report

40. G 11/79 K 20 B J 20 (2)
       L 3.7 cm

Right front fr.


Plus 4 handle frr, from Contexts G 11/77 H 24 Spur I (2)
       G 11/77 K 23 B (3)
       G 11/78 L 18 B M 18 (2)
       G 11/79 K 18 D (4).

Plus 4 nozzle frr (one from the same lamp as a handle listed immediately above), from Contexts
       G 11/76 G 22 S (2) (deep form)
       G 11/77 K 19 North A (3) (2 examples)
       G 11/78 L 18 B M18 (2).

Plus 1 top fr., from Context G 11/77 K 19 B (3).
 
Pl. 40

 

Loeschcke Type VIII

Loeschcke Type VIII lamps of Bailey Type O, group ii

This shape of lamp was also found at Via Gabina 10 and falls into the latter's Group 16a. Like those, the eight fragments from Via Gabina 11 are Italian and probably central Italian, and of Neronian to late Flavian date. Most of them have impressed patterns, ovules, leaves, etc. on their shoulders (which are of Shoulder-form VIII); very few have enough of the discus surviving to indicate whether it was decorated, but rays are found on 42 and 44. Lamp 48 has an unusual break in the mouldings encircling the discus adjacent to its heart-shaped nozzle.

image from lamps report

41. G 11/76 H 19 R B (5) fill 524
       W c 8.0 cm

Rear fr., with ring-handle and raised base. Discus probably plain; impressed heart-shaped leaves on shoulder.
Buff clay; red slip

Pl. 41

 

image from lamps report

42. G 11/78 J 19 B K 19 C (7) SF no. 78.90
       L 3.9 cm

Discus, shoulder and nozzle fr. Discus: rays. Air-hole.
Buff clay; red-brown slip.

Pl. 42

 

image from lamps report

43. G 11/77 I 15 East A/B (5)
       W 2.3 cm

Shoulder and discus fr. Impressed ovules on shoulder.
Buff clay; red slip.

Pl. 43

 

image from lamps report

44. G 11/79 H 17 B (3) SF no. 79.20
       W 2.0 cm

Shoulder and discus fr. Impressed ovules on shoulder; rays on discus.
Buff clay; red slip.

Pl. 44

 

image from lamps report

45. G 11/79 H 17 B (3)
       W 2.7 cm

Shoulder and discus fr. near nozzle. Impressed ring-and-dot.
Buff clay; red slip.

Pl. 45

 

image from lamps report

46. G 11/76 H 18 R C (5
       W 3.0 cm

Shoulder and discus fr. near nozzle. Air-hole.
Buff clay; red slip.

Pl. 46

 

image from lamps report

47. G 11/77 K 20 E (3)
       W 3.0 cm

Shoulder and discus fr. near nozzle.
Buff clay; red slip.

Pl. 47

 

image from lamps report

48. G 11/77 I 18 East A/B (5)
       W 2.9 cm

Shoulder and discus fr. with heart-shaped nozzle. Impressed ovules on shoulder. Atypical form with 'broken' rim.
Buff clay; red slip.

Pl. 48

Loeschcke Type VIII lamps near Bailey Type O, group iii

Lamps that are close to this variety of Loeschcke Type VIII lamp are discussed in Via Gabina 10, Group 16a and they are, like the lamps immediately above, of the second half of the first century AD Three fragments were found in Via Gabina 11, two of which are in Italian buff clays with red slips. The third, Lamp 49, is decorated with a figure of Victoria; her pose, facing to left and with the wings thus arranged, is that found on New Year lamps and this probability is strengthened by the unslipped surface of the buff clay: many New Year lamps have no slip covering.

image from lamps report
49. G 11/78 L 22 A (4) 448
       W 5.5 cm

Rear fr. with ring-handle; Shoulder-form IIb: New Year lamp with head and wings of Victoria to left.
Buff clay, unslipped. For figure-type, compare Bailey ii, Q 1099 of Bailey 1980 Type H


Plus 2 frr in buff clays with red slip, from Contexts G 11/77 I 18 East A (5)
       G 11/77 L 20 East B (2)
 
Pl. 49

 

Standard Italian Loeschcke Type VIII

The huge numbers of Standard Italian Loeschcke Type VIII lamps found in Via Gabina 10 and described there under Group 16b was not repeated at Via Gabina 11, although they proportionately form the largest group of lamps from that site. Thirty-two fragments of these largely second-century lamps were found, but they appear to be of the earlier form and a date between about AD 80 and 160 seems likely; they are all central Italian. Only two have figured decoration, the possible Cupid of 50 and the scallop-shell of 51. Lamp 52 was made in the workshop of Caius Oppius Restitutus.

image from lamps report
50. G 11/77 K 18 S (2)
       L 6.9 cm

Top right fr. Discus: uncertain figure, perhaps Cupid or a satyr.
Buff clay; red slip.

Pl. 50

 

image from lamps report

51. G 11/77 H 18 C (4) SF no. 77.33
       L 4.7 cm

Top left fr. Discus: scallop-shell.
Buff clay; brown slip.

Pl. 51

 

image from lamps report

image from lamps report


52. G 11/78 L18 C (2) 649
       L 4.5 cm

Base fr. Incuse name: C.OPPI. RES.
Buff clay; brown slip.

Plus 1 plain discus fr., from Context G 11/77 H24 E (5)

Plus 2 nozzle frr., from Contexts G 11/78 J 19 (1); G 11/79 H 17 B (3) SF no. 77.66

Plus 10 shoulder frr, from Contexts G 11/77 I 18 East A/B (5); G 11/77 I 20 (4)
       G 11/77 L 20 East B (4)
       G 11/78 I 24 B (2)
       G 11/78 J 19 (7) C.S
       G 11/79 H 16 (1) SF no. 79.34
       G 11/79 H 17 B (3) (2 examples)
       G 11/79 K 17 (1) SF no. 79.64
       G 11/79 K 17 B K 18 (1) SF no. 79.85

Plus 5 base frr, from Contexts G 11/76 L 19 A (3) SF no. 76.24
       G 11/77 H 18 (3)
       G 11/77 I 23 C (4)
       G 11/79 H 17 (2)
       G 11/79 K 18 B (4) SF no. 79.20
 
Plus 11 handle frr, from Contexts G 11/76 L 18 R (1) SF no. 79.74
       G 11/77 F 22 B (5) SF no. 77.2
       G 11/77 G 24 H 24 Pit 2 (5)
       G 11/77 H 19 North C (3) SF no. 77.47
       G 11/77 J 21 (1)
       G 11/77 K 19 N (2)
       G 11/77 K 19 North A (3) INT 2 SF no. 77.30
       G 11/77 L 20 East B (2)
       G 11/78 J 19 B K 19 (5) (2 examples)
       G 11/79 H 17 B (3)
 
Fig. 6; Pl. 52

 

Loeschcke Type VIII variants

The two lamps in this group are very different one from the other, although they might have, when complete, served the same function. Lamp 53 was once attached to the side of a small altar-shaped element, the sunken top of which was an incense-burner; equally, the bowl attached to the handle of Lamp 54 may well have been an incense-burner: both objects would have furnished a lararium. Both also are of Loeschcke Type VIII with a rounded body, short, rounded nozzle and a pierced handle, but one is very large and the other very small. Their dates are not clearly defined, but both could be of the middle years of the second century.

image from lamps report
53. G 11/77 H 18 C (11?) SF no. 77.6
       L 5.8 W 3.7 cm

Miniature lamp broken from the side of an altar. Shoulder-form VIIIb, with impressed ring-and-dots. Faint rosette on discus.
Buff clay, unslipped.

Pl. 53

 

image from lamps report

54. G 11/77 H 18 2 (9) 187
       H 8.3 cm

Handle of a large lamp with part of an attached bowl.
Buff clay; matte orange-red slip. For lamps with bowls upon their handles, compare Menzel 1969, Fig. 132, 746 an Italian Loeschcke Type VIII lamp of Flavian date, and Bailey ii, Q 1336, a Late Italian Loeschcke Type VIII, signed CLOLDIA, of the middle years of the second century.

Pl. 54

Lamp-Lid

For similar lamp-lids, see Bailey ii, Type W, group ii. I now believe that my date-range for them ended too early, the matt orange or orange-red slips found on some of them being near that covering the later form of Standard Italian Loeschcke Type VIII lamps. A Flavian to mid-Antonine date seems likely; most lamp-lids of this form are of central Italian manufacture.

image from lamps report

55. G 11/77 H19 N (3) SF no. 77.73
       D 2.8 cm

Circular lamp-lid, with broken stem. Head of Pan.
Buff clay; matt orange slip. Compare Bailey ii, Q 1463.

Pl. 55

Inscriptions and Marks

The inscriptions and marks found on the lamps from Via Gabina 10 and 11 are listed here. All are workshop related; there are no owners' graffiti. They include makers' names and stamps, and workshop control marks cut into a mould in order that its products might be monitored. The catalogue numbers listed below are prefixed with a 10 or 11 according to the site at which they were found.

Makers' Names

FABRICAGAT (incuse). 10/149. LFabricius Agat( ). CIL xv: 6429; Bailey ii, p. 94, with other refs; Pavolini 1980, Tab. I. Fig.

LFAMAS (incuse). 10/155. LFabricius Masculus. CIL xv: 6433; Bailey ii, p. 95, with other refs; Pavolini 1980, Tab. I. Fig.

FABR ICMAS (incuse). 10/83. As last. Fig.

LFAB (incuse). 10/150. This could be one of the last two or of LFABRIAEVEL, LFABRICHER, LFABRICSATVR (respectively CIL xv: 6430, 6432, 6435). Fig.

BRIC (incuse). 10/156. As last. Fig.

FLORENT (incuse). 10/167. Florentius. CIL xv: 6445; Bailey ii, p. 95, with other refs. Fig.

LMARMI (incuse). 10/165. LMar( ) Mi( ). CIL xv: 6544; Bailey ii, pp 97-8, with other refs. Fig.

LMAD IEC (incuse). 10/146. LMunatius Adiectus. CIL xv: 6560; Bailey ii, p. 98, with other refs; Pavolini 1980, Tab. I. Fig.

LMA DIE C (incuse). 10/141. As last, but reading not certain. Fig.

LMV NSVC (incuse). 10/139. LMunatius Successus. CIL xv:6564. Fig.

LMVN SV C (incuse). 10/140. Probably as last, but others are possible (CCLOSVC: CIL xv: 6377; Bailey ii, pp 93-4, with other refs; Pavolini 1980, Tab. I and, less likely, SVCCESSE below). Fig.

MVNTR EPT (incuse). 10/138. LMunatius Threptus. CIL xv: 6565; Bailey ii, p. 98, with other refs. Fig.

MVNTR EPT (incuse). 10/73. As last. Fig.

SEXMVRR I (relief). 10/94. Sextus Murri( ). Buchi 1975,p. 122. Fig.

NNAEV LVCI (incuse). 10/137. N.Naevius Luci( ). CIL xv:6573; Bailey ii, p. 99, with other refs; Pavolini 1980, Tab. I. Fig.

O PPI (incuse). 10/66. Oppius. CIL xv: 6591; Bailey ii, p. 99, with other refs; Pavolini 1980, Tab. I. Fig.

C.OPPI.RES (incuse). 10/135. C.Oppius Restitutus. CIL xv: 6593; Bailey ii, p. 99, with other refs; Pavolini 1980, Tab. I. Fig.

C.OPPI RES (incuse). 10/85. As last. Fig.

COPPI RES (incuse). 11/52. As last. Fig.

COP PIRES (incuse). 10/136. As last. Fig.

PR INCI IPS (incuse). 10/23. Princeps. I am not at all sure about this, but it is in CIL xv: 6634. Fig.

PVL CHR I (relief). 11/37. Pulchri. CIL xv: 6642; Bailey ii, p. 100 (PVLCIER), with other refs. Fig.

SAEC VL (relief). 10/185. Saecularis. CIL xv: 6221; Bailey ii, pp 100-101, with other refs. Fig.

SVCCESSE (incuse). 10/94. Successus. CIL xv: 6697; Bailey ii, p. 101, with other refs. Fig.

A (incuse). 10/25. Perhaps AMIL CIL xv: 6275. Fig.

L (incuse). 10/174. Fig.

M (incuse). 11/17. Fig.

N (relief). 10/89. Fig.

P (incuse). 10/25. Fig.

IN (incuse). 10/154. Fig.

N (incuse). 10/24. Fig.

VC (incuse). 10/67. Fig.

Makers' Initials

C (incuse). 10/26. Fig.

I.O (incuse). 10/65. Fig.

P F (incuse). 10/27. Fig.

S (sunk relief). 10/7. Fig.

Makers' Stamps

All incuse:

Footprint stamps. 10/42, 10/68, 10, 122, 10/149. Figs

Ring-and-dot. 10/69. Fig.

Leaf. 10/139. Fig.

Mouldmarks (control marks)

All in relief:

AMIL (retrograde). 10/122. The AMIL of CIL xv: 6275 are too early and are incuse makers' names. Fig.

S (retrograde). 10/36. Fig.

Loop pattern . 10/41. Fig.

Trident. 10/134. Fig.

Villa Gabina, Site 10 Villa: Terracottas

A few fragmentary terracotta figurines and other objects were found in the villa designated Via Gabina 10. It seems unlikely that any of this material was made outside central Italy. Very little can be said chronologically about these terracottas, but some pieces come from contexts where the lamps may help. For example, Terracotta 8 is from a context containing Augustan lamps, 1 and 11 were found with early Loeschcke Type VIII lamps of the second half of the first century AD, and early Standard Italian Loeschcke Type VIII lamps of about AD 80 to 150 were found with Terracotta 4. The other terracottas found in the same contexts as lamps are not helped by those contexts: 13-14 came with material dating between the first century BC and the middle of the third century AD; a context dated similarly contained Terracotta 15; 18 and 21 were found with lamps ranging in date from Tiberian to late Severan times; and 20 came from a Tiberian to mid-Antonine context. The other terracottas came from contexts that contained no lamps. I suspect that the large-scale arm 8 is Augustan, but the figurines 1-7 are of the first century AD and perhaps a little later, as are the mask, eye and face, 9-11. The gryphons' heads 12-13 are not readily datable, but the money-box 14 is probably of the first century AD or early in the second century, and the baby's feeder 15 is probably Augustan or a little earlier.

Kenneth Painter is reporting on the Campana reliefs from the Via Gabina villas, but a few minor architectural terracottas are included here (16-22). It is possible that the gryphons' heads 12-13 are architectural in nature. None of this material comes from a context containing lamps and no date is suggested for them here.

image from lamps report
1. G 10/83 CC22 L (9) SF no. 83.211
     H 7.8 cm

Lower part of a seated man on a rectangular plinth, draped and holding an uncertain object on his lap with his left hand.

Buff clay.

Pl. 1

 

image from lamps report

2. G 10/80 X 18 R (3) SF no. 80.79
     H 6.1 cm

Lower left side of a standing draped figure on a rectangular plinth.
Buff clay; traces of white paint on figure, and yellow paint on plinth and foot of figure.

Pl. 2

 

image from lamps report

3. G 10/88 BB 15 South A (3) SF no. 88.49
       H 4.1 cm

Part of a figure of a woman holding a child: her left shoulder and the child's head and hand survive. Pinkish-buff clay.

Pl. 3

 

image from lamps report

4. G 10/84 BB 23 (9) SF no. 84.216
       H 5.1 cm

Upper part of a draped man, with a hole pierced for the attachment of a separate head.
Buff clay.

Pl. 4

 

image from lamps report

5. G 10/87 Y 20 W (2) SF no. 87.42
       H 5.0 cm

Part of a draped figure.
Buff clay.

Pl. 5

 

image from lamps report

6. G 10/87 Y 20 W (2) SF no. 87.42
     H 3.1 cm

Part of a draped figure (not part of 5).
Buff clay.

Pl. 6

 

image from lamps report

7. G 10/80 X 18 Q (3) SF no. 80.32 + G10/87 Y 20 W (2) SF no. 87.42 joined
       H 4.3 cm

Lower part of a draped woman on a circular plinth.
Buff clay; white paint traces.

Pl. 7

 

image from lamps report

8. G 10/85 EE 24 (1) SF no. 85.35
     L 10.4 cm

Forearm and part of the hand of a large-scale figure; possibly wearing a cestus.
Buff clay; red paint on arm.

Pl. 8

 

image from lamps report

9. G 10/85 DD 15 K (2) SF no. 85.39

Several fragments of a dramatic mask, with onkos, pierced eyes and mouth, and a bloom above the forehead. About three-quarters life size.
Buff clay.

Pl. 9

 

image from lamps report

10. G 10/80 BB9 G (1) SF no. 80.149
       L 3.7 cm

Model of a left eye, the only apparently broken edge at the bottom.
Buff clay.

Pl. 10

 

image from lamps report

11. G 10/83 CC 22 L (9) SF no. 83.199
      H 4.5 cm
Appliqué face with two vertical and two horizontal 'horns'.
Light brown clay; bluish-white surface.
Pl. 11

 

image from lamps report

image from lamps report

image from lamps report


12. G 10/86 Z 25 E (5)
      H 8.4 cm L 9.8 cm

Head of a gryphon, with vertical join.
Buff clay.

Pl. 12

 

image from lamps report

13. G 10/87 Z 21/22 R (3) SF no. 87.89
       L 9.7 cm

Part of a gryphon's head as last, perhaps from a parallel mould.
Pink-buff clay; traces of white paint.

Pl. 13

 

image from lamps report

14. G 10/87 Z 21/22 R (3) SF no. 87.83
       W 9.3 cm

Top of an oval, flat-topped money-box, decorated in relief with two butting goats; grooved lines on background and on the side of the box. Damaged coin-slot between the goats.
Buff clay.

Pl. 14

 

image from lamps report

15. G 10/87 Z 21/22 R (2) SF no. 87.68
       L 4.0 cm

Filling-hole end of a feeding-bottle, with slits cut into its dished top. Relief-line decoration.
Buff clay; matt red slip. Compare the feeding-bottles in Bailey i, pl. 148.

Pl. 15

 

Via Gabina, Site 10 Villa: Architectural Terracottas

image from lamps report
16. G 10/86 Z 25 E (5)
       W 11.0 cm L 12.0 cm

Spout for a compluvium? Long neck, broken at its extremity, extending from a curved feature, hollow behind. On each side of the neck are incised lines, perhaps indicating hair. At the broken end of the neck was an applied element, perhaps the ears of an animal. At the base of the neck is an applied plain band resembling drapery. At one side of the neck is a rosette and tendrils; below is a moulding. Deep buff clay.

Pl. 16

 

image from lamps report

17. G 10/86 Z 25 E (5)
       H 4.2 cm

Curved moulding, hollow behind: part of a frieze with the lower part of a man to right, above a floral pattern.
Buff clay.

Pl. 17

 

image from lamps report

18. G 10/81 V 23 N (2) SF no. 81.79
       W 6.5 cm

Curved moulding, hollow behind, decorated with a floral pattern.
Buff clay.

Pl. 18

 

image from lamps report

19. G 10/83 E 22 C (a5) SF no. 83.168
       W 3.7 cm

Small fragment with a palmette decoration within an arch.
Reddish-buff clay.

Pl. 19

 

image from lamps report

20. G 10/83 EE 22 C (24) SF no. 83.159. H 3.6 cm

Small fragment of a palmette.
Reddish-buff clay.

Pl. 20

 

image from lamps report

21. G 10/81 V 23 N (2) SF no. 81.79
       H 10.0 cm

Part of a curved egg-and-dart moulding, hollow behind.
Buff clay.

Pl. 21

 

image from lamps report

22. G 10/80 Z 25 E (5)
       H 7.1 cm

Part of a curved egg-and-dart moulding, hollow behind.
Buff clay.

Pl. 22

 

Via Gabina, Villa Site 10:
The Contexts and their Lamps and Terracottas

A2 N (9): after 54

A22 (9): after 141

A22 D (7): after 54

E 22C (a5): TC 19

F12 S (2): 12

N15 I (1): after 26

O14 B (4): after 40

P10 unstrat.: after 73

P12 A (4): after 141

P12 J (6): after 26

S14 (1): after 141 (2 examples); after 185

S14 F (2): 186

S14 F (8): after 40; after 50

S14 Y (3): after 141

T13 (3): after 141

T18 A (3): after 156

T18 B (2): after 141

T18 C (1): 6

T18 E (5): 114

T18 G (4): after 141

T18 H (3): after 163

U15 North E (2): 87

U15 North E (3): 5

U15 South E (3): after 87

U15 E (2): after 52

U15 E (4): 76 part

U16 ) (3): after 141

U20 A (2): after 40

U20 B (2): after 141

U20 B (4): after 141

U20 E (2): after 163

U20 E (3): 40; after 50; after 52; after 54; after 85 (2 examples); after 141 (3 examples)

U20 E (4): after 85

U21 South M (4): after 141 (2 examples)

U22 (9): after 40

U22 D (4): after 141

U65 South E (4): after 79

U156a E (4): after 50

U156a E (6): after 50

V16 E (2): after 156

V16 U (2): after 141

V22 Q (2): after 40

V23 N (2): after 50 (2 examples); after 54; 59; after 163; TC 18; TC 21

V23 N (3): after 141

W6 E (5): after 141

W15 (2): 130

W15 (3): after 141 (2 examples)

W15 A (3): 40

W15 A (4): 12; 41; 43; after 50 (2 examples); 97; 141

W15 A (5): after 50; after 141

W15 B (4): after 141; after 156

W15 Y (3): 40

W15 Y (4): 15; after 50; after 52; after 141 (2 examples)

W17 (1): 40

W17 N (2): 162

W18 N (2): after 141

W19 A (4): after 185

W20 E (4): after 50

W20 L (1): after 54

W20 N (12): 4

W21 L (6): after 54

X12 S (2): after 141

X16 A (2): after 156

X16 (3): after 52; after 141 (2 examples)

X16 A (3): 127

X16 V (9): after 54

X16 X (3): after 40; after 52

X16 Y (2): after 141

X16 Y (3): after 40; after 141 (2 examples)

X18 (1): 12 (2 examples); 91

X18 A (7): after 141 (3 examples)

X18 B (5): 135; after 141

X18 C (3): after 85

X18 E (3): 175

X18 H (7): after 50

X18 I (3): after 54

X18 Q (3): TC 7

X18 R (3): TC 2

X18 R (4): after 50; 52; 184

X18 S (7): after 141 (2 examples)

X18 T (7): after 141 (2 examples); after 163

X18 Z (7): after 141

X21 P (2): 121

X21 S (2): after 54

X21 V (9) BRI 189: 110

X21 W (2): after 50

X21 Feature 142 (2): after 141

X23 N (2): 115

Y20 C (3): after 40

Y20 W (2): TC 5-6

Y21 (1) TNK 214: after 52

Y21 N (2): 1

Y21 N (10): 15; 24; after 26; 31

Y21 S (8): after 26; 31

Y21 S (13): 35; after 54; after 85

Y21 V (4): 166

Y21-23 S (3): 25

Y23 (1): after 50 (2 examples); after 87; after 141; after 185

Y23 B (4): after 59

Y23 D (3): after 185

Y23 D (4): 38

Y23 D (5): after 141

Y23 P (2): 12; after 54; after 102; 106; after 141

Y23 P (5): after 50; after 54; after 141

Y23 P (6): after 50; after 52

Y23 V (10): after 50

Y23 V (15): 13; after 26; 32; after 40; after 185

Y23 V (15) BRC 189A: after 54



Y23 W 8 (5): after 73

Y23 189 (10): 15

Y25 North B (2): 171

Y26 C (3): after 52; 95; after 141

Z15 (3): after 141

Z21-22 (3): 111

Z21-22 E (3): after 54

Z21-22 R (2): 9; 27 part; 29 (3 examples); after 40; after 50 (2 examples); after 79; after 141 (3 examples); after 156; 154; 170; 181; 185; after 185 (3 examples); TC 15

Z21-22 R (3): 8; 11; 12; 27 part; 31 (2 examples); after 40 (5 examples); after 50 (2 examples); 51; after 141 (4 examples); after 16-7; 173; TC 13-14

Z21-22 R (4): 7; 12; 17 23; 29; 31; after 40 ; after 87 (2 examples); after 185

Z25 E (5): TC 12; TC 16-17; TC 22



AA B (6): after 185

AA12 A (3): 28

AA13 unstrat.: 21

AA13 (3): after 26

AA13 A (3): after 141

AA13 B (3): 15

AA16 (1): 140

AA16 A (3): 15; after 50

AA19-20 55 (4): 15

AA19-20 R (3): 10; 40; after 40

AA19-20 South R (3): 39

AA19-20 S (2): after 29

AA19-20 S (4): 29; after 51

AA19-20 South S (4): after 141

AA22 (1): after 70; 84 part; after 141; after 163

AA22 C (2): after 40; 49; 50; after 50; after 54 (2 examples); 58; after 59; 61; after 79; 81 part; 101; 107; 109; 125; after 141 (13 examples)

AA22 C (7): 104

AA22 D (7): after 51

AA22 D (8): after 40; after 50

AA22 F (5): 66; after 167

AA22 G (2): after 141

AA22 O (6): after 163

AA23 C (2): 84 part

AA23 C (3): after 40; after 52; after 54 (2 examples); 71; after 73; after 141

AA23 C (4): after 50 (3 examples); after 52 (5 examples); after 54 (5 examples);

57; 73; after 73 (2 examples); after 74; 81 part; 84 part; 88; 89; after 89; 103; after 116; after 141 (17 examples)

AA23 E (4): after 73

AA24 (3): 105

AA24 A (3): 15; after 185

AA25 (1): after 50

AA25 G (3): 178

AA27 C (4): after 54

BB2 East J (5) DOL 332: 31

BB4 E (2): after 141

BB8 C (6): after 141

BB9 (1): after 169

BB9 Ca (1): 26

BB9 E (1): 48; after 52; after 78

BB9 E (2): after 141

BB9 G (1): after 26; 29; after 50 (2 examples); after 141 (2 examples); TC 10

BB9 G (2): 30; 34; 44; after 73; after 79; 102; after 102; 129; after 141 (5 examples)

BB9 G (3): 12; after 54; after 141

BB9 G (4): 12; 16; after 26; after 141

BB9 G (5): 29; after 141; after 156; after 185

BB9 G (6): 15; 67; after 89

BB9 G (6?): after 141

BB9 N (2): after 141

BB9 N (5): 15

BB9 O (4): 40

BB12 (1): after 156; 179

BB12 (2): after 163

BB12 A (8): after 141

BB12 D (1): 161; after 163 (2 examples)

BB12 E (2): 176

BB12 M (2): 94; after 156

BB12 M (3): after 141 (4 examples); after 163

BB12 M (4): after 141 (2 examples)

BB12 M (5): 83; after 141 (2 examples)

BB12 M (6): after 54; after 141

BB12 M (9): 12

BB12 O (32): 12

BB12 S (2): 22; after 40; after 51; after 52; after 141

BB12A C (3): after 185

BB15 South A (2): 134; after 141 (2 examples); 159; after 163 (5 examples); after 180

BB15 South A (4): after 141; after 185

BB15 West A (4): 46

BB16 F surface: after 141

BB17 (1): 86

BB17 (4): after 52

BB17 Ac (3): after 184

BB17 X (3): 82; 143

BB18 A (2): 169

BB18 South A (3): TC 3

BB18 Ac (2): 116 part

BB18 Ac (3): 116 part; after 156; after 185

BB18 Ac (6): after 40; after 50; 80

BB18 Ac (12): 70

BB18 C (7): 15

BB18 D surface: 20

BB18 E (8): after 54

BB18 E (14): 18

BB18 E (14) CUN 183: after 40; after 50

BB18 E (18) CUN 183: 14; 40; after 54

BB18 G: after 185

BB18 P (6): after 141

BB18 33 (10): 15

BB18 33 (C): 29

BB19 E (1):after 73

BB20 Lower Z (8): after 50

BB20 South (1): after 163

BB20 South Z (4): after 40; 124

BB20 South Z (5): 149

BB20 South Z (6): after 40

BB20 South Z (7): 33

BB20 South Z (8): 37

BB21 E (2): after 54

BB21 E (5): after 54; after 141; after 180

BB21 S (2): after 141

BB22 (4): 131

BB22 7?: 40

BB22 A (3): after 54

BB22 A (4): 74; after 141

BB22 C (3): after 50; 112

BB22/B/CC22 (1): after 59

BB22/B/CC22 A (2): after 141

BB22/B/CC22 CA (2): after 85; after 141

BB22/B/CC22 E (3): after 40

BB22/B/CC22 E (5): 160

BB22/B/CC22 E (8): after 54

BB22/B/CC22 GA (2): 40

BB22/S/CC22 6 A (2): after 54

BB23 (1): after 40

BB23 (2): after 156

BB23 (3): after 50; after 52; after 85

BB23 (4): after 141

BB23 (5): after 141

BB23 (9): after 141; TC 4

BB23 A (3): after 59; after 141

BB23 U (2): after 54

BB23 U (3): after 52; after 141

BB23 V (2): 139; after 141; 146

BB23 V (3): after 50; after 51; after 52; after 54 (2 examples); after 59; 65; 69; 113; after 141 (7 examples); after 156; 152

BB23 V (5): after 52; after 54

BB23 V (6): after 141

BB23 W (3): after 52; 79; after 141

BB26 B (3): after 59

BB29 W (3): after 141

BC18 (5): 156

CC A (4): after 54

CC1 West C (1): after 85

CC15 (1): after 141 (2 examples); after 169

CC15 West (1): after 141

CC15 A (1): after 141; after 156

CC15 West A (3): 93; after 141 (3 examples); 148; after 156

CC15 West A (4): after 141 (2 examples); after 156

CC15 West A (9): after 141

CC16 (1): after 185

CC16 C (15): after 40

CC16 V (56): after 50 (2 examples)

CC17 C (9): 40 (2 examples); after 40 (2 examples); after 78

CC18 (2): after 54

CC18 A (3): after 54

CC18 B (13): after 50

CC18 C (5): after 141 (2 examples)

CC18 C (14): after 120

CC18 C (16): 15

CC19 (3): 40

CC19 A (7): 47

CC19 D (6): after 141

CC20 (2): after 141; after 185

CC22 (1): after 54; 128; after 184

CC22 (4): after 59; 75; 126; after 141 (2 examples)

CC22 (7): after 52

CC22 (9): 42; after 51; after 52; after 54; 62; after 64; 68; 76 part; 80; 92; 98; after 102; 117; 123; 133; after 141 (7 examples); 144

CC22 A (1): after 62; after 141

CC22 A (2): after 50 (2 examples); after 52; 72; after 74; after 85; 136; after 141; after 185

CC22 A (3): 40 (2 examples); after 50 (2 examples); after 52; after 54 (2 examples); 99; after 141 (2 examples)

CC22 A (4): after 40 (2 examples); after 141

CC22 A (9): after 102

CC22 D (2): after 52

CC22 D (3): after 50

CC22 D (4): after 40 (2 examples)

CC22 E (4?): 151 part

CC22 E (9): after 40; after 54 (2 examples); 60; after 73; 120; after 141; 145; 147; after 156

CC22 L (1): after 141 (2 examples)

CC22 L (8): after 52

CC22 L (9): 96; 118; TC 1; TC 11

CC23 (2): after 40

CC23 (9): after 156

CC23 S (4): 36

CC23 Z (2): after 102

CC24 A (2): after 141

CC195/B/

DD195 E (5): after 40

DD1 D (12): after 141

DD11 A (6?): after 50

DD12 CUN 440 (1): after 141 (2 examples)

DD12 CUN 440 (2): after 141

DD15 A (2): after 141

DD15 A (3): after 102; 108; 167

DD15 A (13): after 163

DD15 D (4): after 50

DD15 D (99): after 40

DD15 K (2): TC 9

DD15 K (3) Feature 132: after 169

DD15 K (6): after 54

DD16 (1): after 50

DD16 A (8): 54

DD16 C (2): after 156

DD16 C (3): after 141

DD16 D (6): 157

DD16 D (7): after 141

DD16 G (6): after 141

DD16 West G (8): after 141

DD18 A (8): after 40; after 141

DD18 West F (4): 172

DD18 West G (5): 138; after 141

DD18 West G (8): after 54

DD19 (4): 137

DD19 (6): after 141

DD19 (7): after 141 (4 examples)

DD19 (9): after 185

DD19 (10): after 141; 163

DD19 D (3): 164

DD19 N (4): after 141

DD19 O (2): after 185

DD19 East (1): after 156

DD19 East M (3): after 163; after 184

DD19 East N (4): after 141 (2 examples)

DD20 D (3): after 54 ; 90; after 167 (2 examples)

DD20 D (4): after 52; after 141; after 156

DD20 G? (4): 151 part

DD20 O (2): after 156; 168

DD20 O (3): 180; after 185

DD20 O (4):after 74; 132; after 141 (2 examples)

DD21 (1): after 167

DD21 A (3): after 141

DD21 East N (3): 177

DD21 East N (4): 122

DD21 East Y (6): 183

DD22 unstrat.: after 141

DD22 (1): after 102

DD22 A (3): after 50

DD22 H (3): 100

DD22 N (5): after 167

DD22 Z (2): 56

DD24 P (3): after 50

DD24 East B (4): after 52

DD29 (1): after 54

DD/9/64: after 163

EE16 (6): after 141

EE16 (7): 55; after 141

EE16 K (8): 40

EE17 North (2): after 141; 187

EE22 A (1): after 40

EE22 C (1): after 141

EE22 C (2): 182

EE22 C (8): 85; 153

EE22 C (9): 63; after 141

EE22 C (11): after 141; after 156

EE22 C (12): 150; after 156

EE22 C (13): after 40; after 185

EE22 C (14): after 141

EE22 C (15): after 156

EE22 C (19): 155

EE22 C (22): after 40; after 141 (2 examples)

EE22 C (24): after 50; after 54; after 102; after 141 (2 examples); 142; TC 20

EE22 C (25): 12; 119; after 141 (2 examples)

EE22 C (27): 34; 53

EE22 C (29): 45; 174

EE22 C (30): after 54; after 185

EE22 Q (4): after 141

EE23 (2): after 26

EE23 A (4): 64; after 141

EE23 C (1): after 156

EE23 C (2): 165

EE24 (1): after 26; after 40; TC 8

EE27 (1): 19; after 40

FF9 G (2): after 50

GG27 A (2): 29

GG27 East A (2): after 141

PO 15 (1): after 54

723 P: 15

2818 E (18) CUN 183: 3

VIA GABINA 11 - THE CONTEXTS AND THEIR LAMPS

C19 N (4): Loeschcke Type IB

E12: 8

F14 (2): after 30

F21 West A (2): after 18

F22 B (5): after 52

G12 B (2): Loeschcke Type IA

G19H B (2): Loeschcke Type IB

G22 S (2): after 40

G24/H24 Pit 2 (5): after 52

H15 A (3): 12

H16 (1): after 52

H16 A (3): 2

H16/B/I16 B (3): after 37

H17 (2): 24; after 52

H17 B (3): Loeschcke Type IA; 23 27; after 30; 44; 45; after 52 (4 examples)

H18 (3): after 52

H18 A (4): Loeschcke Type IA; 35

H18 B (2): 13

H18 C (4): 51

H18 C (11?): 53

H18 2 (9): 54

H18R B (6): after 18

H18R C (5): 46

H19 K 8 (5): 14

H19 N (3): 55

H19 North C (3): after 52

H19B B (6): after 3

H19R B (5): 41

H24 E (5): after 52

H24 Spur I (2): after 40

I15 East A/B (5): 43

I16 A (3): 9

I18 East A (5): after 49

I18 East A/B (5): 29; 48; after 52

I20 (4): after 52

I20 (5): 16

I20 East B (2): 33

I21/B/J21 C (2): 39

I23 C (4): after 52

I24 B (2): after 52

J15 (1): 3

J17/B/K17 (1): 15; 18

J17/B/K17 C (2): after 30

J18 A (4): after 30

J19 (1): after 52

J19 (7): Loeschcke Type IB; after 30; after 52

J19/B/K19 (5): after 30; 37 part; after 52 (2 examples)

J19/B/K19 C (7): 37 part; 42

J20 (3): 26

J21 (1): after 52

K14/B/K18 K14 East (1): 10

K15 B (2): 11

K16 A (3): after 30

K17 (1): after 52

K17 B (2): 6

K17 C (2): 1

K17/B/K18 (1): 22; after 30; after 52

K18 B (4): after 52

K18 D (4): after 40

K18 S (2): 50

K19 B (2): 4

K19 B (3): Loeschcke Type IB; 38; after 40

K19 N (2): after 52

K19 North A (3): 19; 25; after 40 (2 examples); after 52

K20 E (2): 36

K20 E (3): 47

K20 East B-12 (3): after 30

K20/B/J20 (2): 40

K20/B/J20 B (1): 32

K23 B (3): after 40

K23 P (3): 5

K23/B/L23 (1): after 30

L2 E (1): after 3

L18 A (2): after 18

L18 B (3): Loeschcke Type IA

L18 C (2): 52

L18 R (1): after 52

L18/B/M18 (2): after 40

L19 A (3): after 52

L19 C (2): 31

L19 G (5): 7

L20 E (4): Loeschcke Type IB; 21

L20 East A (2): 28

L20 East B (2): 34; after 49; after 52

L20 East B (4): Loeschcke Type IA; after 52

L20 East B (9): 20

L22 A (4): after 30; 49

P26 East P (7): after 18

T18 V (3): 17

Z24 B (2): after 30.

 

References

Bailey i 1975. DM. Bailey, A Catalogue of the Lamps in the British Museum i, Greek, Hellenistic and Early Roman Pottery Lamps, London.

Bailey ii 1980. DM. Bailey, A Catalogue of the Lamps in the British Museum ii, Roman Lamps made in Italy, London.

Bailey iii 1988. DM. Bailey, A Catalogue of the Lamps in the British Museum iii, Roman Provincial Lamps, London.

Broneer 1930. O. Broneer, Corinth iv, 2, Terracotta Lamps, Harvard.

Buchi 1975. E. Buchi, Lucerne de Museo di Aquileia i, Aquileia.

CIL see Dressel 1899.

Deneauve 1969. J. Deneauve, Lampes de Carthage, Paris.

Dressel 1899. H Dressel, Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum xv, 2, Berlin.

Farka 1977. C. Farka, Die römischen Lampen vom Magdalensberg, Klagenfurt.

Hellmann 1987. M.-C. Hellmann, Lampes antiques de la Bibliothèque Nationale ii, Lampes pré-romaines et romaines, Paris.

Heres 1972. G. Heres, Die römischen Bildlampen der Berliner Antikensammlung, Berlin.

Loeschcke 1919. S. Loeschcke, Lampen aus Vindonissa, Zürich.

Menzel 1969. H Menzel, Antike Lampen im Römisch-Germanischen Zentralmuseum zu Mainz, Mainz.

Oziol 1977. Th.-J. Oziol, Salamine de Chypre vii, Les lampes du Musée de Chypre, Paris.

Pavolini 1980. C. Pavolini, in Bollettino della Commissione Archeologica Comunale di Roma 75, 1976-7, pp 45-134.

Pavolini 1981. C. Pavolini, in A. Giardina and A. Schiavone, Merci, mercati e scambi nel Mediterraneo ii, Bari, pp 139-84.

Waldhauer 1914. O. Waldhauer, Kaiserliche Ermitage, die antiken Tonlampen, St Petersburg.

 

All text and images copyright © 2002 by Walter Widrig and Rice University. Last updated June 2005 by dmc-info@rice.edu.