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This paper discusses the animal bones recovered during excavation at two Roman villas on the Via Gabina, near Rome. The excavations were directed by Prof. Philip Oliver-Smith and Prof. Walter Widrig, of Rice University, Texas (U.S.A.), between 1976 and 1989. The sites take their 'names' from the numbers assigned during survey by Ward-Perkins and Kahane (1972) (Via Gabina site 10, Via Gabina site 11. The animal bones were studied in July 1990, primarily at The British School at Rome. The data from the two sites will be presented separately, although the results will be considered together, and placed within their broader context. All bones were recorded individually and assigned a reference number which may be given, in places, in the text.


Via Gabina, Site 10 Villa

A sample of 4,495 fragments was examined from this site, excavated between 1978 and 1989 (Table 1) It proved impossible to identify to species or bone 1519 (33.8%) of these. Vertebrae form 6.6% of the sample: the majority is from very small and small animals (108 and 150 fragments respectively). All parts of the vertebral column are present. Ribs represent 14.2% of the fragments recovered: those of small animals are most frequent. There are 2,042 fragments (45.4%) which are identifiable to species or group of animals. For fifty-eight fragments, the definitive species identification is still to be established. Nine fragments of fish bone and five pieces of turtle/tortoise carapace and plastron were isolated. There are 150 fragments of rodents and 213 fragments of bird.

The bones of wild animals are present in the sample although they are rather infrequent. There are three bones of roe deer (a metatarsal, a proximal phalanx and a medial phalanx)) two of badger (a lower tooth and a tibia) and forty-nine of hare. For badger and roe deer just one individual of each may be represented, whilst the hare remains belong to at least four individuals. A single bone (a humerus) was found of a cat. A discrete number of equid bones was found (48 fragments), representing at least three individuals. Fragments of canid bones are more frequent than those of cattle, although in both cases a minimum number of seven individuals is represented. The dominant animals are sheep/goats and pigs: there are 379 fragments of sheep/goat bones belonging to at least twelve individuals, and 706 fragments of pig bones belonging to at least thirteen individuals.

In Table 2 the composition of the main species identified sample is shown in terms of the frequency of representation of the different anatomical elements. For pigs there is a quite considerable number of cranial and dental elements (49.2% of the pig sample). The upper parts of the limbs (that is, excluding the carpals/tarsals and below) are reasonably well represented (36.7%) whilst the bones of the limb extremities are rather scarce especially given their numerical frequency in the skeleton (13.3%). For sheep/goat the fragments are more evenly distributed, with the bones of the upper parts of the limbs being most frequent (39.8%). In fact cranial and dental elements are, as a group of elements, least frequent (24.5%). Similarly for cattle the fragments are more evenly distributed, with fragments of the bones of the limb extremities being slightly more frequent than the other categories (35.9% cf. 29.8%). A large number of equid teeth was found, although the limbs are also represented. The canid remains present cover the whole skeleton, no part being particularly dominant (given differences in the frequency of each elements in the complete skeleton). The hare bones are primarily from the upper part of the fore limb and from the hind limb.

Information upon the ages at which animals of the main species had died is summarized in Table 3. For pig there appears to be a discrepancy between the results based upon the fusion data and those based upon the dentition evidence. The fusion data imply that a considerable number of animals had died before reaching 11-19 months, that almost all had died before reaching 23-31 months, with very few animals exceeding 31-35++ months. However, from the dental data it appears that a reasonable number of animals exceeded (even if by little) 19-23 months, the remaining animals being killed at a range of ages (a hypothesis based upon the number of jaws with teeth erupting and the variety of toothwear stages represented). However, both sets of data allow it to be suggested that most pigs had died before reaching 31 months of age. In addition, it should be noted that thirteen bones are of foetal animals and 104 are from animals which had died soon after birth. Whilst some sheep/goats died whilst very young (for example, four bones of foetal individuals, twenty-one of neonatals), most survived until at least 48 months. At least one animal exceeded 4860 months at death. Although one cow/ox died soon after birth and another prior to 1.5 years, most survived beyond 2-2.5 years. Some quite old individuals are indicated by the toothwear evidence in particular. Seven of the canid bones are from neonatal individuals, and a range of immature and mature animals seems to be represented. On the basis of the horse teeth, most of the animals died at circa eight to ten years of age, although one slightly older animal (fourteen years) was noted and one animal is represented by a particularly worn upper third premolar.

Butchery markings were quite frequent and are listed in Appendix 2. it should be noted that evidence was found for deliberate cutting on the bones of pigs, sheep/goats, cattle, equids and a canid, as well as rib, vertebra and unidentifiable fragments. It seems that the carcase was split in two along the spinal column. Particularly common division points were the distal end of the scapula; the distal humerus - proximal radius - proximal/mid ulna; the pelvis; the femur; the distal tibia and tarsals; and the metapodials.

In Appendix 1 (part i) are listed the metric data obtained from this sample.

Where possible distinction has been made between sheep and goats, using primarily criteria proposed by Boessneck (1969). The following results were obtained: horncore - sheep three, goat one; cranium - sheep one; metacarpal - sheep four, goat one; metatarsal - sheep six; astragalus - sheep one; proximal phalanx - sheep fifteen, goat two; medial phalanx - sheep seven, goat one; distal phalanx - sheep three. To summarize, of the forty-five diagnostic fragments, forty (88.9%) are of sheep.

There are sixty-six fragments of canines of pigs: forty-three are of males and twenty-three are of females. Five fragments of bone had pathological conditions: cattle femur (389), sheep/goat metacarpal (992), pig maxilla (3715), pig mandible (3729) and a canid metacarpal IV (4428).

Weathered surfaces were noted on 113 fragments. In most cases this was slight or moderate although some instances of heavy weathering were found. Forty-four fragments, from a variety of contexts, had been burnt. One fragment had been gnawed (4091).

 

Via Gabina, Site 11 Villa

A small sample of animal bones was recovered from excavations which took place between 1976 and 1980. Only 262 fragments were found (Table 4). Of these, 139 (53.1%) could not be identified to species or to bone type. There is one fragment of a thoracic vertebra of a sheep/goat-pig size animal, and twenty fragments of rib of a similarly sized animal. It was possible to identify 128 fragments (48.9%) to a group of animals or to species. The precise species identification of one fragment is still to be confirmed. Twelve fragments have been identified as being of rodent; four are tortoise/turtle carapace and plastron fragments; one is of fish; fourteen are of birds; and two shells were noted. The majority of the sample is composed of bones of "domestic species", that is, pig, sheep/goat, cattle, equid and canid. The relationship between these animals is shown in Table 4 both in terms of the number of fragments identified and the minimum number of individuals represented. Canid and cattle bones were infrequent. The sheep/goat and equid samples consist of a similar number of fragments from the same minimum number of individuals. The small site 11 sample is dominated by the bones of pigs.

Obviously the small size of the sample precludes the representation of all parts of the skeleton and the emergence of valid patterns. However, in Table 5 the predominance of pig and equid teeth should be noted. The data available upon the ages at which the major 'economic' animals had died are given in Table 6. For pig the sequences and estimated ages used are those proposed by Bull and Payne (1982); for sheep/goat those of Bullock and Rackham (1982); and for cattle those of Silver (1969). The toothwear has been recorded using the methodology proposed by Grant (1975, 1982). The single cow/ox definitely present had died after having reached 1.5-2.5 years. Whilst one sheep/goat had died prior to reaching 35-36 months, another survived beyond 48 months. The majority of pigs had died prior to reaching 23-31 months, although one survived beyond this. Of the two equids definitely present, on the basis of the crown height of the teeth (Levine 1982), one had died at circa 4 years whilst the other had died at circa 8~9 years.

Few measurements could be taken of the bones from site 11. Those that were possible are given in Appendix 1 (part ii). Of the pig canines, nine are of males and four are of females. Four fragments of bone had cut marks related, in all probability, to butchery: a rib of a small animal has a cut edge at one end (008); a rib of a small animal has a cut marks and a cut edge (then snapped) at one end (014); a rib of a small animal has a cut and snapped edge at the ventral end (127); a sheep/goat humerus has a sawn cut edge at the distal end of a split proximal shaft fragment. A total of twenty fragments had weathered surfaces of varying degrees of severity: slight (nine), moderate (seven), moderate-heavy (three), heavy (one). Part of one rib fragment of a small animal had been burnt (129). A thoracic vertebra of a small animal has a malformed spine (067).

 

Discussion

The data resulting from analysis of sample of animal bones from two villas (sites G10 and Gl1) on the Via Gabina have been presented. Before going on to interpret and discuss the evidence, certain critical points must be made. The samples are not particularly large, especially given the extensive areas excavated. However, it should be remembered that these sites are villas and, although little is known on refuse disposal practices, it might be reasonable to assume that the bulk of household refuse was removed from the living area. The rubbish might, for example, have been gathered together at some distance from the villa itself, or burnt, or scattered on cultivable ground. Therefore, it may be assumed with certainty that the animal bones recovered during excavation do not represent anything other than a part, perhaps very small, of the animal carcases (whether complete or partial) once associated with the villas.

In addition, it should be appreciated that a sample of animal bones will rarely reflect upon an economic system in its entirety, but rather upon aspects of it. For example, bones of sheep/goats, pigs and cattle may reflect directly upon the food consumption of the associated human group, but may not be at all representative of the agricultural production system of the surrounding area. Moreover, it should be recalled that the bones found are not always a result of meat consumption but may belong to animals kept as pets or for work, or may be representative of a raw material source.

In the case of the villa at Site 11, pig is the dominant animal, followed by sheep/goat and then equid. However, that we are dealing with a rather particular sample is indicated by the marked predominance of pig and equid teeth. Two main situations might be envisaged: firstly, that this is a result of a deliberate acquisition/disposal practice; secondly, that teeth have survived in greater numbers because of their more resistant physical structure. At present it is not realistic to prefer one hypothesis to the other, and the two are not mutually exclusive in fact. That at least some of the material is food refuse is implied by the presence of cut marks related, in all probability, to butchery.

Obviously there is the potential for obtaining rather more information from the site 10 sample. An initial impression is that this sample relates much more to food consumption than that from site 11, given the dominance of pig, sheep/goat and cattle bones. The major exception to this is the large number of canid bones: although one bone has a cut mark, it is likely that these animals had been working dogs or household pets. The equids present may also have been kept as working animals, whether for use in agricultural activities or in transport, although there is no reason why they should not ultimately have formed part of the meat supply. The occasional exploitation of wild animals is indicated by the presence of hare and roe deer remains.

The critical elements in diet were pork, beef and lamb/mutton. Although numerically least common, cattle may have provided a considerable portion of the meat supply (circa 49% on the basis of the number of fragments and circa 63% on the basis of the minimum number of individuals). Given the fact that many of the cattle present appear to have died after having reached maturity, it would appear that they had been raised primarily for milk and/or as working animals, although ultimately forming part of the meat supply. The contribution of sheep/goats to the meat supply appears to have been relatively slight (circa 12% on the basis of the number of fragments and circa 13% on the basis of the minimum number of individuals). However, many of the sheep/goat had in all probability been raised for milk and/or wool and only culled once their yields had begun to decline. Pigs, in addition to being the most frequently exploited animal, would have been of fundamental importance in the food supply. As mentioned above, there seems to be some discrepancies in the mortality data as a result of which it is difficult to comment upon the implied pig-raising regime with any certainty. Suffice it to say that it appears to have been at least relatively intensive.

In Appendix 1 measurements of some bones have been listed. Briefly these will be compared with those obtained for Settefinestre (King 1985) and Matrice (Clark forthcoming). The sheep/goat at the Via Gabina are rather large animals: those from Settefinestre are in the lower part of the Via Gabina ranges; those for Matrice spread over ranges which start before those for the Via Gabina and finish before. The cattle at the Via Gabina are similar in size to those at Matrice and comparable to the larger animals at Settefinestre. The pigs at Via Gabina may have been slightly smaller than those at Matrice, but broadly comparable to those at Settefinestre.

King (1984, 1985) has discussed the data available from animal bone studies in the Late Republic and Empire in west central Italy. He concludes that the relationship between the species of 60% pig, 25% sheep/goat and 15% cattle is distinctive of the dietary regime prevailing in this area at that time. The Via Gabina data fit this pattern remarkably well, being pigs 56%, sheep/goat 30% and cattle 14%). In terms of the sheep/goat raising strategy, the patterns observed in the mortality data are rather similar to those noted at Settefinestre and dissimilar to those at Matrice. The exploitation of pigs seems to have been similar at all the sites being discussed here. The exploitation of cattle at Via Gabina appears to be more similar to that at Matrice then that at Settefinestre.

To conclude, whilst not large in numerical terms, the samples obtained from the villa sites G10 and G11 on the Via Gabina, just south of Rome, have added valuable shading to our picture of life on and around such sites. As was emphasized before, no group of material is likely to provide a comprehensive image, but particular parts of it may be defined more clearly. As a result, this paper need not represent anything other than a first stage in the analysis of these data, as attention in the future may be paid, for example, to chronological developments and spatial distribution patterns.


Gillian Clark
British School at Rome
November 1990

References

  • Boessneck, J. 1969: Osteological differences between sheep (Ovis aries Linne) and goats (Capra hircus Linne). In D. Brothwell and E.S. Higgs (eds), Science in Archaeology (second edition): 331-358. London: Thames and Hudson.
  • Bull, G. and Payne, S. 1982: Tooth eruption and epiphysial fusion in pigs and wild boar. In B. Wilson, C. Grigson and S. Payne (eds), Ageing and Sexing Animal Bones from Archaeological Sites: 55-71. Oxford: British Archaeological Reports, British Series 109.
  • Bullock, D. and Rackham, J. 1982: Epiphysial fusion and tooth eruption of feral goats from Moffatdale, Dumfries and Galloway, Scotland. In B. Wilson, C. Grigson and S. Payne (eds), Ageing and Sexing Animal Bones from Archaeological Sites: 73-80. Oxford: British Archaeological Reports, British Series 109.
  • Clark, G. forthcoming: The animal bones from Matrice. In J. Lloyd (ed.), The Samnite and Roman Villa at Matrice (CB). Archaeological Monograph of the British School at Rome.
  • von den Driesch, A. 1976: A Guide to the Measurement of Animal Bones from Archaeological Sites. Cambridge (Mass.): Peabody Museum Bulletin 1.
  • Grant, A. 1975: The use of tooth wear as a guide to the age of domestic animals - a brief explanation. In B. Cunliffe, Excavations at Portchester Castle Vol. I. Roman: 437-450. London: Report of the Research Committee of the Society of Antiquaries of London 32.
  • Grant, A. 1982: The use of tooth wear as a guide to the age of domestic ungulates. In B. Wilson, C. Grigson and S. Payne (eds), Ageing and Sexing Animal Bones from Archaeological Sites: 91-108. Oxford: British Archaeological Reports, British Series 109.
  • King, A. 1984: Roman diet - the evidence of animal bones from Settefinestre and other Italian sites. Paper presented to the Third Conference of Italian Archaeology, Cambridge.
  • King, A. 1985: 1 resti animali; i mammiferi, i rettili e gli anfibi. In A. Carandini (ed.), Settefinestre. Una Villa Schiavistica nell'Etruria Romana. Vol. 111: 278-300. Modena: Edizioni Panini.
  • Levine, M. 1982: The use of crown height measurements and eruption-wear sequences to age horse teeth. In B. Wilson, C. Grigson and S. Payne(eds), Ageing and Sexing Animal Bones from Archaeological Sites: 223-250. Oxford: British Archaeological Reports, British Series 109.
  • Silver, 1. 1969: The ageing of domestic animals. In D. Brothwell and E.S. Higgs (eds), Science in Archaeology (second edition): 283-302. London: Thames and Hudson.
  • Ward-Perkins, J. and Kahane, A. 1972: The Via Gabina. Papers of the British School at Rome 40: 91-126.



Table 1. Via Gabina Site 10: number of fragments and minimum number of individuals represented



Number of Fragments Minimum number of individuals
Pig 706 13
Sheep/goat 379 12
Cattle 181 7
Equid 48 3
Canid 238 7
Cat 1 1
Hare 49 4
Roe deer 3 1
Badger 2 1
Bird 213
Rodent 150
Tortoise/turtle 5
Fish 9
? 58
TOTAL
2042
Rib very small 169
Rib small 407
Rib large 61
Vertebra very small cervical 15
Vertebra very small thoracic 27
Vertebra very small lumbar 34
Vertebra very'small caudal 10
Vertebra very small indet. 22
Vertebra small cervical 16
Vertebra small thoracic 58
Vertebra small lumbar 46
Vertebra small caudal 1
Vertebra small indet. 29
Vertebra medium thoracic 1
Vertebra medium lumbar 1
Vertebra medium indet. 4
Vertebra large cervical 15
Vertebra large thoracic 10
Vertebra large lumbar 2
Vertebra large indet. 6
Unidentifiable small long 432
Unidentifiable large long 75
Unidentifiable indet. 1012
TOTAL
4495
Key: indet. = indeterminate



Table 2. Via Gabina Site 10: anatomical composition of the sample



Pig Sheep/goat Cattle Equid Canid Hare
horncore - 5 3 - - -
cranium 63 12 3 - 4 -
maxilla 21 6 1 - 8 -
tooth-upper 49 25 13 13 5 -
tooth-lower 137 31 29 12 12 -
mandible 78 19 8 2 8 1
hyoid - 1 1 - - -
atlas 2 4 1 - 3 -
axis 1 2 2 1 2 1
scapula 30 19 10 1 7 1
humerus 47 20 13 - 11 5
radius 37 33 5 2 10 3
ulna 27 9 3 - 10 1
carpal 5 - 2 1 4 1
metacarpal 22 39 15 2 29 -
sternum - - 1 - - -
sacrum 1 2 - - 2 -
pelvis 32 16 7 2 6 1
femur 29 17 6 3 9 6
patella - 1 1 - 2 -
tibia 41 36 8 4 11 2
fibula 17 - - 5 - -
os malleolaris - - 1 - - -
astragalus 7 5 4 1 3 1
calcaneum 10 1 4 1 5 1
tarsal - 2 1 - 11 1
naviculo cuboid - 1 - - - -
metatarsal 21 32 12 2 26 14
sesamoid - 1 - - - -
proximal phalanx 13 26 14 - 23 5
medial phalanx 1 8 5 1 8 -
distal phalanx 2 4 4 - 7 4
os penis - - - - 1 -
metapodial 13 2 4 1 6 1
TOTAL 706 379 181 49 238 49



Table 3. Via Gabina site 10: mortality data (For key see below)


FUSION DENTITION

NF F
Absent Erupting Present Wear
PIG
scapula d 8 5 D4-2 - 5 10 aaaaab
radius p 13 -




medial phalanx p - 1 M1 3 - 15 abbcefffggh
humerus d 19 1



kkkm
proximal phalanx p 6 6 M2 31 1 19 bbbbbbbcdgg
tibia d 20 3



ghj
metapodial d 31 5 P4-2 9 - 24 aacddeeeeg
femur p 11 -




calcaneum p 5 - M3 4 3 14 abcccef
ulna p 9 1




femur d 17 -




radius d 13 1




humerus p 22 1




tibia p 15 -




SHEEP/GOAT
humerus d 2 5 D4-2 1 - 1 h
radius p 3 7




scapula d 2 3 M1 - - 17 dggghhhjjkk
medial phalanx p - 8



klm
proximal phalanx p 5 19 M2 - 1 9 ddeghij
tibia d 6 5




femur p 1 2 P3 5 - 2
metacarpal d 13 6




metatarsal d 5 9 P4 1 - 1 gggii
femur d 3 2




tibia p 7 3 P2 - - 5
radius d 4 2




humerus p 2 - M3 - - 21 beghiiii
ulna p 2 -





C - - 1
CATTLE
humerus d - 2 M1 - - 12 bkkkkm
radius p - 2




scapula d - 6 M2 - - 3 gl
medial phalanx p 1 4




proximal phalanx p 1 11 P3 - - 6
tibia d - 3




femur p 2 - P2 - - 3
metacarpal d - 7




metatarsal d 1 2 M3 - - 5 dgkl
tibia p - 2




radius d - 1 P4 - - 2 g
humerus p - 1




Key:

NF - not fused
M - molar
F - fused
P - premolar
p - proximal
d - distal



Table 4. Via Gabina Site 11: number of fragments and minimum number of individuals represented



Number of Fragments Minimum number of individuals
Pig 50 4
Sheep/goat 18 2
Cattle 8 1
Equid 17 2
Canid 1 1
Bird 14
Fish 1
Shell 2
Tortoise/turtle 4
Rodent 12
? 1
------ 128 ----
Rib small 20
Vertebra small thoracic 1
Unidentifiable small long 36
Unidentifiable large long 15
Unidentifiable indeterminate 62
---- 262 ----
Key: small long = shaft fragment of the long bone of a sheep/goat-pig size animal
large long = shaft fragment of the long bone of a cattle-equid size animal



Table.5. Via Gabina Site 11: anatomical composition of the sample



Pig Sheep/goat Cattle Equid Canid
maxilla 1 - - - -
tooth-upper 5 2 2 1 -
tooth-lower 29 4 - 12 1
mandible 1 - - 2 -
scapula 1 - 2 - -
humerus 2 1 - - -
radius - 1 2 - -
carpal 1 - - - -
metacarpal 4 3 - - -
femur - - - 1 -
tibia 1 1 1 - -
astragalus - - - 1 -
metatarsal 1 5 - - -
metapodial 1 - - - -
proximal phalanx 2 - - - -
medial phalanx 1 - 1 - -
distal phalanx - 1 - - -
TOTAL 50 18 8 17 1



Table 6. Via Gabina Site 11: mortality data (For key see below)

FUSION DENTITION

NF F
Absent Present Wear
PIG
medial phalanx p 1 1 M1 - 3 bg
proximal phalanx p 1 1 M2 - 2
metapodial d 3 1 P4-2 - 3 bg

M3 - 1 b
SHEEP/GOAT
tibia d 1 - M1 - 1
metacarpal d - 1 M2 - 1
humerus p 1 - P3 - 1

P4 - 2 af

M3 - 1 g
CATTLE
scapula d - 2 M2 - 1
medial phalanx P - 1 P3 - 1
Key:

NF - not fused
M - molar
F - fused
P - premolar
p - proximal
d - distal



APPENDIX 1. Via Gabina metric data

The measurements are based on those proposed by von den Driesch (1976). All measurements are given in millimetres.


Key:
atlas
1. breadth of the cranial articular surface
2. breadth of the caudal articular surface
axis
1. breadth of the cranial articular surface
scapula
1. greatest length of the glenoid process
2. length of the glenoid cavity
3. breadth of the glenoid cavity 4. smallest length of the neck of the scapula
humerus
1. breadth of the proximal end
2. smallest breadth of the diaphysis
3. breadth of the distal end
4. breadth of the distal trochlea
5. height of the distal trochlea 6. greatest length radius
radius
1. breadth of the proximal end
2. breadth of the proximal articular surface
3. smallest breadth of the diaphysis
4. breadth of the distal end 5. breadth of the distal articular surface 6. greatest length
ulna
1. length of the olecranon
2. smallest depth of the olecranon
3. depth across the Processus anconaeus
4. breadth across the proximal articular surface
pelvis
1. length of the acetabulum, including the lip
femur
1. breadth of the proximal end
2. breadth of the distal end 3. greatest length
tibia
1. breadth of the proximal end
2. smallest breadth of the diaphysis
3. breadth of the distal end
4. depth of the distal end 5. greatest length
naviculo cuboid
1. greatest breadth
astragalus
1. greatest length of the lateral half
2. greatest length of the medial half
3. depth of the lateral half
4. depth of the medial half 5. breadth of the distal end astragalus (equid)
astragalus(equid)
1. greatest height
2. greatest breadth
3. length of the medial part of the Trochlea tali
4. breadth of the distal articular surface
calcaneum
1. greatest length
metapodial
1. breadth of the proximal end
2. depth of the proximal end
3. smallest breadth of the diaphysis
4. breadth of the distal end, measured at the fusion point
5. breadth of the distal end, measured across the condyles
6. depth of the distal end, measured at the fusion poin
7. greatest length
metapodial
1. breadth of the proximal end (pig, canid,
2. smallest breadth of the diaphysis hare)
3. breadth of the distal end
4. greatest length
proximal and
1. breadth of the proximal end
medial phalanx
2. smallest breadth of the diaphysis
3. breadth of the distal end
4. greatest length of the peripheral half
distal phalanx
1. length of the dorsal surface
2. diagonal length of the sole 3. middle breadth of the sole


Part i Via Gabina Site 10









1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Notes Bone Number
PIG
scapula 32.2 26.4 22.2 23.8



2209
humerus 42.5






1687
radius


30.2 27.3


681

30.4






2308

28.0






2580
ulna 50.7 23.3





2801
tibia

31.7 25.2



289



31.7 24.3



2581
astragalus 40.1 37.3 19.0
22.5


507

40.9 36.5 21.2 25.1 23.4


1462

34.9 32.5 16.8 21.9 20.3


1513
metacarpal III 17.7 14.8 17.8 70.6



1265

16.2 13.4 16.5 67.7



2582
metacarpal IV 14.6
16.4 68.4



1514
metatarsal III 14.7






2414

16.0






3445
metatarsal IV 14.2






2221
proximal phalanx
11.1 13.5




472

15.71 2.1 14.4 34.1



1386

15.3 11.8 13.9 31.4



1490

15.5 11.5 13.3 30.3



3474
medial phalanx 16.0 12.7 13.7 36.7



2217
distal phalanx 21.8 24.1 8.8




488

23.2 24.6 10.5




3636
SHEEP/GOAT
atlas 39.1 39.5





814

44.9 45.0





815
axis 39.7






813
humerus


30.6 18.9


313



35.4 32.7 20.9


2187



35.0 32.8 21.5


3882



33.0 31.4 19.3


4070
radius 28.2 26.5





825

34.1 31.3 19.4 32.3 25.0 155.0

1680

33.7 31.1 19.2 32.6 25.4 155.0

1661

34.8 30.8





2304

32.2 30.7





4113
ulna
20.5 23.5 16.7



824
femur 45.2






1385


37.7





1887
tibia

27.8 21.5



1004

42.7






1892



26.9 20.8



1894



29.1




2191



27.8 21.2



2192
astragalus 31.1 28.4 15.7 17.4 19.2


3630

33.4
17.5



Sheep 3887
naviculo cuboid 28.1






3881
metacarpal 22.8 16.2 13.6 24.5 24.3 11.5 122.0 Sheep 659

27.2 19.2 16.2 28.0 27.4 15.0 139.0 Sheep 2195

28.5 19.5 15.7 28.6 28.7 15.6 154.0 Sheep 3884




28.3 28.6 15.8
Sheep 3962




27.1 27.4 15.4
Goat 3963

23.0 17.1





991

26.8 19.4





992

22.7 23.6 12.6 26.5 27.4 14.7 161.0
993

23.2 16.2 13.2




1446

23.6 15.8 13.0




1497

24.8 18.0





1886

23.1






2559

27.5 19.3





2560

27.3 18.1





3160

28.3 19.4





3883

7.4 19.8





4087
metatarsal 20.3 20.7 11.4 23.0 24.1 12.0 134.0 Sheep 658

22.4 21.8 12.7 26.1 25.5 15.2 150.0 Sheep 1335

21.7 21.8 12.2 24.5 25.0 13.7 143.0 Sheep 1888




27.8 27.7 13.6
Sheep 2196




23.2 23.9 13.2
Sheep 2197




26.6 27.8 15.0
Sheep 2785

25.2 23.5 12.8 26.6 27.4 14.8 161.0 Sheep 3161

23.8 22.6





2786

25.0 22.9





3964

24.6 23.4 13.6 27.2 27.7 15.6 163.0
3965
proximal phalanx 13.3 10.6 12.0 36.6


Sheep 505

12.6 10.5 11.9 40.0


Sheep 988

12.8 10.7 11.8 39.7


Sheep 989

13.9 10.5 12.2 40.1


Sheep 1105

13.0 10.3 11.8 38.7


Sheep 2556

13.3 10.5 11.5 40.4


Sheep 2782

13.4 10.5 11.6 40.4


Sheep 2783



13.3 40.3


Sheep 3162

13.8 11.2 12.7 43.1


Sheep 3967

14.1 11.5 13.0 43.8


Sheep 3968

14.3 11.5 12.8 42.4


Sheep 3969

13.8 10.5 12.6 42.9


Sheep 3970

13.3 10.3 11.7 43.6


Goat 3966


9.1 10.7 37.2



301

11.7 9.7 12.4 34.3



1218

13.3 10.5 12.0 40.0



1362

13.2 11.3 13.0 35.7



1890

12.2 9.5 10.6 35.1



1891

13.7 10.9 12.6 40.8



2784

medial phalanx
13.4 10.0 10.7 26.9


Sheep 1106

12.3 8.0 9.3 24.6


Sheep 2830

12.7 9.6 10.5 24.6


Sheep 3971

12.7 9.5 10.9 25.2


Sheep 3972

12.2 9.2 9.5 25.3


Sheep 3973

12.6 9.3 9.8 24.1


Sheep 3974

12.3 9.3 9.8 26.1


Sheep 3975

11.6 9.2 10.5 25.8



447
distal phalanx 24.2 29.5 6.2



Sheep 3976

25.2 31.0 6.2



Sheep 3977

25.4 30.8 6.2



Sheep 3978
CATTLE
scapula 77.5 68.8 58.0




390


73.5





504

71.2 59.0
53.5



526
radius 78.8 75.0 38.2 65.6 63.2 290.0

2647

90.6 84.9





2771
femur 124.0






389

tibia


61.0 46.2



956



64.6 43.7



3426

115.0 47.3 76.5 53.4 408.0


4076
astragalus 77.3 71.8 40.9 42.0 47.7


2770
metacarpal 73.0






476

82.2 52.8





477

57.1 31.5 33.7 52.7 56.7 28.0 204.0
528

74.0 41.1





645




46.4 56.1 26.4

840

73.8






2772




67.0 76.3 32.9

2774

75.4 43.6 41.5 69.6 79.4 32.5 228.0
3703

72.3 40.5 40.6 65.8 75.0 32.0 221.0
3704
metatarsal


64.1 65.2 34.3

471




62.7 67.5 32.3

646

51.2






1263

51.5 52.8





3839

37.2

65.8



413

30.9 26.2 28.3 56.2



32

27.5 21.8 25.5 57.0



1

29.3 24.4 27.4 56.3



647

33.7 29.5 33.7 67.2



958

37.2 35.3 35.7 66.2



959

30.8 26.9 29.1 59.5



960


34.5 39.5




1548

28.3 24.2 30.2 60.3



3508
medial phalanx 28.8 23.2 23.1 37.9



14

41.4






470

33.4 27.6 25.6 43.1



2182

distal phalanx
67.0 88.1 32.5




837

47.6 65.2 21.1




838
CANID
atlas 30.7 24.0





1996
scapula 17.9 15.8 11.2 16.5



174

32.5 29.1 18.7




3055

32.5 29.1 18.4 28.0



4411

32.6 28.5 19.1 27.8



4412

17.8 16.0 11.2 15.6



4466
humerus 19.8






173



19.6




176



35.1 26.6 21.9


3057

34.1 14.1 36.8

180.0

4419

19.9 8.5 20.6

116.5

4463
radius 11.9






9
20.0

27.1
176.0

4417

20.5

27.0
176.0

4418

11.2 8.1
14.6
109.4

4465
ulna
12.4 14.8




175


13.6 11.8




239

34.9 23.5 27.8




3063
pelvis 22.0






3069
femur 24.5 20.8 122.5




172


20.9





10


20.5





20


25.9





61

42.0






3065

41.8






3066

40.4 35.4 192.0




4455

26.0 20.8 124.8




4464
tibia

15.1 10.2



237

22.1
14.0
127.8


21

37.2
26.7 18.8 234.0


3208



26.5 19.4 233.0


3209



25.3 18.8



4413

39.0






4414
astragalus2 8.5






3073

31.3






3201

29.8






4115
calcaneum5 0.1






3074

50.1






3075

52.2






3202

51.0






3203

47.5






4114
metacarpa II


34.8



183




47.0



954




56.8



1182




61.7



4429




61.3



4431
metacarpa III


70.5



4433




71.1



4434
metacarpal IV


44.6



182




62.1



4182




70.5



4430
metacarpal V


69.1



3076




63.8



3081




59.2



4432
metatarsa II


69.4



3085




69.5



3087




80.3



3214




69.6



4119
metatarsal III


58.2



63




79.6



3086




79.5



3088




89.8



3213




88.6



3216




72.7



4085




77.1



4118




73.1



4160
metatarsal IV


81.6



3089




92.5



3212




92.2



3217




75.8



4086




79.8



4117
metatarsal V


61.2



2275




82.6



3210




82.8



3211




71.4



4116
EQUID
radius


69.9 59.8


4093
tibia

70.6 42.8



527




38.3



635



72.0 44.1



636
astragalus 35.0 34.0 35.3 31.3



2385
metatarsal 36.3






370

43.3

47.8

270.0
2180
ROE DEER
metatarsal 18.8
11.5 20.9 22.6 13.3 195.0
632
proximal phalanx 11.1 8.8 9.6 38.4



2888
medial phalanx 11.8 8.3 8.3 27.6



633
HARE

humerus
17.8






108



11.7




109
17.2






235
astragalus 17.3






113

calcaneum
35.1






112

metatarsal II



52.4



240

metatarsal III



54.3



140

metatarsal IV



56.3



141
CAT

humerus





66.4

1225


Part ii Via Gabina Site 11



1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Notes Bone Number
PIG
metacarpal III 16.5






131

16.2






151
metatarsal IV 12.7 10.2 14.5 78.4



242
CATTLE
medial phalanx 29.6 22.9
41.9



239

APPENDIX 2. Cut marks Via Gabina Site 10








PIG
scapula 271 cranial part of glenoid process removed
scapula 2575 cranial part of glenoid process removed
humerus 679 cut edge and cut marks at proximal end of distal fragment
humerus 2576 cut circa distal fusion point and cut marks on medial shaft
radius 2800 lateral-proximal part removed
ulna 420 cut on lateral face circa processus anconaeus
ulna 1307 cut at distal end of fragment towards distal fusion point
ulna 1688 cut across proximal articular surface
ulna 3455 cut across proximal articular surface
ulna 3886 cut across olecranon and across proximal articular surface
pelvis 1690 cut at cranial edge of ilium and across and behind acetabulum
pelvis 1691 cut at cranial end across ilium
pelvis 2797 ilium-ala fragment cut on three sides
pelvis 2798 ilium-ala fragment cut on three sides
pelvis 3634 ilium split
pelvis 3663 cut circa ilium-ala ,loin, including deep cut notch
tibia 686 dorsal part of distal end removed
tibia 800 cut across dorsal part of distal articular surface
metapodial 359 cut edges at both ends of shaft fragment
proximal phalanx1 103 proximal articular surface remove(laterald)
SHEEP/GOAT
horncore 1428 cut at base of fragment
horncore 1889 partially cut at base of fragment
horncore 2778 cut from cranium
horncore 2779 cut from cranium
scapula 820 cut marks on cranial face of neck
pelvis 818 cut across acetabulum
pelvis 1591 cut at distal end across ilium
sacrum 666 split - 50% present
femur 651 deep cut notch by proximal edge of distal fragment on medial side
femur 1445 slice removed from proximal ball epiphysis
femur 1512 medial part of ball epiphysis and very small fragment of medial shaft remain
femur 1677 distal part of distal condyles removed
tibia 1004 cut edge at proximal end of distal fragment(17Y. present), plus cut mark below edge
tibia 1893 medial proximal part removed
tibia 2563 cut at distal end of fragment
astragalus 1005 distal part removed
astragalus 1058 sliver of lateral side remains
CATTLE
horncore 839 series of cut edges towards base of horncore
scapula 3428 distal cranial part removed
humerus 361 medial and lateral parts of distal epiphysis removed
pelvis 503 cut at mid-point of ilium and across the cranial part of the acetabulum
metacarpal 840 partially split - medial part from proximal end to circa distal fusion point removed
metacarpal 486 cut at distal end of proximal (25Y) fragment
metatarsal 471 cut at proximal end of distal (67%) fragment
metatarsal 3839 cut on plantar proximal edge, circa 15 mm below articular surface, subsequently splitting along central line
proximal phalanx 328 peripheral proximal surface removed
proximal phalanx 1548 proximal articular surface removed
EQUID
metacarpal 4091 slice removed from proximal-dorsal surface
medial phalanx 637 cut/whittled on proximal-dorsal and plantar volar surfaces
CANID
ulna 2175 cut across olecranon and across distal shaft
RIB
small 338 cut at one end
small 713 cut at one end
small 929 cut at one end
small 933 cut at one end
small 1137 cut at both ends
small 1158 cut at both ends
small 1232 cut at one end
small 1233 cut at one end
small 1252 cut at one end
small 1297 cut at ventral end
small 1298 cut at both ends
small 1327 cut at ventral end
small 1345 cut at one end
small 1553 cut at ventral end
small 1582 cut at one end
small 1643 cut at ventral end
small 1644 cut at one end
small 1645 cut at one end
small 1795 cut at dorsal end
small 2128 cut at both ends
small 2130 cut at one end
small 2404 cut at ventral end
small 2405 cut at ventral end
small 2406 cut at ventral end
small 2512 cut at both ends
small 2515 cut at one end
small 2536 cut at both ends
small 2752 cut at both ends
small 2843 cut at one end with other cut marks present
small 3439 cut at one end
small 3457 cut at one end
small 3472 cut at one end
small 3475 cut at one end
small 3754 cut at one end
small 3825 cut at one end
small 3900 cut at both ends
large 308 cut at one end
large 37 partially cut edges at both ends
large 342 cut at both ends
large 717 cut at one end
large 944 cut at dorsal end
large 2125 cut at one end
VERTEBRA
small cervical 1185 split - 52% present
small cervical 1274 barrel removed
small thoracic 442 barrel cut at circa 45° to line of bone as viewed cranially
small thoracic 789 caudal part of spine removed
small thoracic 1301 caudal part remains
small thoracic 1303 spine split
small thoracic 1351 diagonal split - 40'/. present
small thoracic 1460 split - 40% present
small thoracic 1503 split - 45% present
small thoracic 1535 slice removed from one side
small thoracic 3590 spine split
small lumbar 1663 barrel removed
small lumbar 3377 caudal part of barrel removed
small lumbar 3116 split - 507. present
small lumbar 3493 barrel fragment Split and cut across
mall lumbar 3588 split - 557E present
small lumbar 3589 split - 75% present
small 441 barrel fragment with various cut edges
small 951 split - 65% present
small 2379 caudal or cranial fragment of barrel remains
UNIDENTIFIABLE
large long indet. 626 one cut edge
large long indet. 627 one cut edge
large long indet. 628 one cut edge
large long indet. 629 one cut edge
indeterminate 2698 one cut edge
(indet. = indeterminate)

 

All text and images copyright © 2002 by Walter Widrig and Rice University. Last updated June 2005 by dmc-info@rice.edu.