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Via Gabina Site 11: Black Glaze Pottery Report

This report on the pottery from Via Gabina Site 11 was written by myself, but is based largely on recording done before I joined the Via Gabina team as pottery analyst in 1980, which was the last year of excavation on Site 11. The classification of the pottery from the site was first organized by M. Aylwin (Molly) Cotton, with the advice of John Hayes. For the first year of excavation (1976), the actual day-to-day pottery recording was in the hands of Molly Cotton and Mary Winkler. Susan Davidson was pottery recording supervisor from 1977 to 1980. Paul Arthur was the pottery analyst for the site from 1976 to 1979. Many of the notes and observations of the original staff have been incorporated into the catalogue below, and I am very grateful for their contributions.

Over the years, many people drew pottery. The penciled pottery drawings were often signed. Draftsmen include Paul Arthur, Marina Warren, Danny Cohen, Tom Watson, John Mitnacht and John Velitis. After I came on the site, the most important draftsmen were Marina Warren (1980), Bill Hartman (1980, 1981) and Rosemary Aicher (1990).

The purpose of this pottery report is to give as much insight as possible into the history and function of the site itself. Although it includes a catalog of the pottery from the site, it is not" primarily meant to be read as a list of pottery types which appear on the site, but as an overview of the level of the material culture over a long period of time. To this end, in as much as possible, the pieces from the site are organized chronologically within wares, and commentary about the meaning of the presence of the ware or type on the site is as complete as possible.

The pottery dating of a site is always dependent on its fine wares. For Via Gabina Site 11, this means that a long period of the site's history is illuminated by black-glazed wares from the site. These wares are the major fine ware diagnostic pottery indicator for the site from the beginning of the third c. B.C. to the end of the first c. B.C., more than half of the life of the site. Without the contribution of the scholarship of Jean-Paul Morel on black-glazed wares, the present design of this report would have been inconceivable.

Black-Glazed Wares from Via Gabina Site 11

Introduction

One hundred and thirty-five pieces of black-glazed fine ware from Site 11 were catalogued and drawn, of which about a hundred pieces have been selected for publication. This means that the black-glazed wares form a large percentage of the 700 pieces originally catalogued; they also make up over half of the catalogued fine wares from the site. In contrast, sixty-nine pieces of Italian terra sigillata, the next best represented fine ware from the site, were originally catalogued.

The relatively high percentage of black-glazed wares clearly indicates there was intensive occupation of the site in the Hellenistic/Republican period. Furthermore, about a third of the black-glazed pieces can be dated to the early third c. B.C., a fact which is disconcerting, since the earliest dated context from the site, Phase IC construction, cannot be earlier than c. 180 B.C. The remainder of the black-glazed ware covers every era from the mid-third c. B.C. to the end of the first c. B.C., attesting that occupation was quite possibly continuous throughout the subsequent Republican era. Nevertheless, none of these eras compare in intensity of occupation to the architecturally practically unattested period which, judging by the overall pottery dates of the group, precedes the First Punic War.

Nomenclature

The first problem in any English-language study of Hellenistic black-glazed pottery is what to call it. Although I use the long­-established term 'black-glazed', some comment is necessary. The term 'black-glazed' is technically incorrect, because the finish is not a glaze but a more-or-less glossy slip. The contemporary expert on this pottery class, Jean-Paul Morel, calls it céramiques campaniennes, that is, 'Campanian pottery'. As I believe that the best designation for any pottery fabric is one which indicates the production center, this would be a better designation for black-­glazed wares, if, in fact, they were of Campanian origin. But Morel is simply bowing to the historical facts of scholarship. Agnes Scott Lake's study of the black-glazed wares at Minturnae used the title 'Campana suppellex', in reference to the ancient quotation. The fundamental typology of Nino Lamboglia, which must be taken into account in any study of black-glazed, organized the forms of this class of wares by division into three 'fabrics', 'Campana A, B and C'.

No one knows better than Morel, however, that such a simple geographic designation of provenance is incorrect. Furthermore, Morel has stated that the designations 'Campana A, B and C' have no reference to reality before the second and first centuries B.C., even when used as accurate designations of specific Neapolitan/Ischian, Etrurian and Sicilian productions. Hellenistic black-glazed, a linear descendant of Athenian fine black-slipped pottery of the classical period, was made in many different Mediterranean production centers in the Hellenistic era. Italy had several important production centers from the late fourth c. B.C., that is, from the beginning of the Mediterranean-wide fashion for this plain, all-over black-slipped ware. A number of known workshops appear in the area of Etruria and Latium by the early third c. B.C.; there were others in Campania and in the area of Tarentum. While the Italian productions were particularly important, with generally good quality and wide export marketing from this time down into the first c. B.C., centers of production also existed outside Italy. A more appropriate designation for this pottery class would be 'Hellenistic Mediterranean black­-slipped (or 'black gloss') pottery'.

Methodology

Jean-Paul Morel is unquestionably the contemporary expert on black-glazed Hellenistic pottery. Since his publication of Céramique à vernis noir du Forum Romain et du Palatin in 1965 he has worked and published unceasingly to enlarge our minimal understanding of this class of wares. In this report, I use the most complete typology of black-glazed forms available, Morel's Céramiques Campaniennes: Les Formes (1981). This two-volume work, which contains incomparably more data on black-glazed pottery than any other published work, has forced a revolution in the study of black-glazed pottery.

Morel's work embodies extremely significant advances on what has been previously known about this class of wares. The pieces of black-glazed which formed the overworked and often amended typology of Lamboglia have been fitted into a new kind of typology. Morel's typology accepts the proliferation of workshops, not only in Italy, but elsewhere in the Mediterranean, and of forms over more than three centuries, from the late fourth century B.C. to the early first century A.D. The typology works by slotting every complete published piece, no matter what its provenance and fabric, into a structure implicitly organized by the range of possible forms. The basic plan is simple and correct in conception for the typology of a single ware for which the dating is still partly in question.

The great advantage of this typology is its completeness, its clarity of organization, and the consistent inclusion of selected types of information, including fabric descriptions, likely provenance and date. The resulting work is a comprehensive reference to known forms and extremely helpful as a source of likely evidence for dating of particular forms.

There is a problem, however, in that Morel has published only the first section of what is planned as a three-part life work. Planned volumes on decoration and production centers are not yet published. It is therefore relatively difficult to correlate information on the decoration of the pieces with their form and fabric.

The structure of the typology was also made more difficult in practice because black-glazed is very far from being a single ware. Nevertheless, the ideally usable typology is based on accurate definition of fabric, with pieces from specific production centers grouped together and organized chronologically. Morel quite legitimately could not organize his typology in this ideal way because it would require a much more complete knowledge of an exceeding complicated production history than is now available. In fact, Morel has identified many specific workshops, but we are still far from being able to assign every vessel to a known fabric.

Furthermore, in some cases pieces can be dated very closely, while in others the dating is very difficult. Morel's plan is therefore complicated by known relationships based on fabric production and date, which result in sub-groups which Morel has defined within his organization.

Morel's typology is difficult to apply to the understanding of a particular site. It is very possible to misuse it, quoting a Morel type designation for any piece and the corresponding date, with no further attempt at intelligent synthesis. But each piece in this typology is a specific piece, from which little generalizing can be done without danger of serious error. Legitimate comparisons to Morel can only be made by rigorous study of accurate drawings, and a good awareness of the likely relevant workshops. The corroborating information which might be drawn from decoration is missing. Very little generalizing information is included in the typology. For this, one must go to other work published by Morel. When he has not yet published on a particular question, one must form one's own generalizations from the evidence, which are bound not to have the same weight as Morel's own, no doubt quite well-formed, opinion.

The Site in Its Cultural Milieu

I have not made any effort to collect comparanda from distant sites for the pieces which are catalogued here. In general, Morel has made it possible to say what the likely provenance of our pieces would be. The distribution of the type around the Mediterranean is not my present interest. On the other hand, I have searched for comparanda in a few sources which are of immediate geographical relevance to our site, as I was concerned with how well particular forms seen on our site were documented in Latium and Etruria. Such sources were carefully searched for comparanda.

The first of these is Morel's own earlier work, Céramique a vernis noir du forum romain et du palatin (1965). Careful study of the pieces catalogued by Morel from sites in the city of Rome makes it clear that the immediate area of Rome, which includes Via Gabina Site 11, is very idiosyncratic in the identity and diversity of its black-glazed wares. Most salient to Morel was the extreme diversity of fabric, which he maintained is not the case even for other relatively near Italian sites such as Cosa (pp. 233-4). Already in 1965, Morel listed twenty-three diverse fabrics or production classes represented at Rome (pp. 257-8). The same observation holds true for the material from the Via Gabina. It is not only the fact of diversity which is strikingly similar, but the very range of pottery fabrics and forms clearly indicates the Rome area. For instance, Morel says that in the late fourth century Rome's markets were getting a little pottery of the types known as 'Teano', 'Cales', 'Gnathian'. But just as no 'precampanienne' (Attic) seemed to get through in the fifth c. B.C., so little 'protocampanienne' (Lamboglia forms 40-47 and 49­51) was to be seen at Rome in the late fourth and early third c. B.C. (p. 234).Rome had her own production centers in these years (p. 235).

Although he has raised many of his dates, the evidence still supports Morel's early conclusion that the third century B.C. was a period of autarky at Rome, with local products, particularly the output of the workshop of the 'petites estampilles', dominating the market. Although Morel had hardly yet given this group its name (cf. index, p. 257), he was well aware of great numbers of locally produced examples of hemispherical bowls as Lamboglia Form 27 A and B, and lists thirty-three examples of this group from his catalogue (pp. 239-41 and notes, cp. p. 257). This is certainly not an exhaustive count; I list below a minimum of twenty more pieces which belong in this category. Therefore a minimum of fifty pieces―or ten percent of the whole catalogue―fall into the narrow category of Lamboglia Form 27 bowls from this particular workshop.

But although hemispherical bowls are the most numerous product of this workshop, several other forms are also now believed by Morel to derive from the same source. The fabric produced by the workshop of the 'petites estampilles' bowls unquestionably makes up the largest single category among Morel's catalogued pieces from Rome, and this is likewise unquestionably the largest single category on Via Gabina Site 11.

At Rome, Morel points out, Campana B only becomes established in the second c. B.C., but he moderates the point by stating that many of the pieces he has catalogued are of earlier date; even so he has catalogued only 25 certainly identifiable pieces out of more than 500 (p. 236). Campana A is even less well attested, with only fifteen pieces, and the ware first appears only in the mid second c. B.C., remaining extremely rare until the beginning of the first c. B.C. (p. 236). He particularly notes the complete lack of Lamboglia Forms 31 and 33, among the earliest forms to appear in Campana A, in the Rome collections; here, the Via Gabina is slightly independent, with at least two certain examples. Campana C is pathetically under-represented at Rome, with only two examples identified (p. 235).

Given that these classic 'Campana' wares are so poorly attested, the two wares which he identifies as specifically Roman products take on more weight. Morel catalogued 12 pieces of his fabric 'Roman D' (i.e., 'Campana D'), a ware very eclectic in its stamped decoration, for which he suggested a date in the first half of the first c. B.C. The ware is characterized by a smooth soapy surface, dark grey somewhat shiny gloss with many color nuances. The gloss flakes easily, revealing a grey or olive slip beneath; the paste is hard, light, dark grey in color, with fairly thin walls. Twelve pieces of 'Roman E' also were identified, a simple, heavy ware which might date to the first half of the second c. B.C. Rough surface, turning marks, poor slip, pale black, red near base, soft sandy fabric, stale odor, chamois or chamois-orange.

I have also compared our black-glazed with the pieces from the Republican deposit at Sutri. The Sutri deposit belongs to some period within the second c. B.C.: Duncan supposed the second half of the century or even into the first was most likely. The Sutri deposit shows some correspondances with Via Gabina Site 11. By far the most striking is the appearance of Sutri Form 7, a bowl with ribbon-band rim, on the Via Gabina site. The appearance of Sutri Form 9, a deep bowl with double grooves at the exterior of the rim, also seems to be significant. Other less obviously meaningful correspondances are the appearance of Sutri Form 1 (Lamboglia 6 dish) ; Form 12, a small deep bowl, and Form 14 (Lamboglia 3 pyxis).

 

Fabrics

Morel stated in Forum romain that the number of wares he found in the area of Rome was very great. In Céramique Campanienne: Les Formes, Morel lists 69 workshops or groups of workshops, of which at least half might reasonably appear in central Italy. Because it would be impossible for me to differentiate these wares at sight, I have described the fabric of each piece in the catalogue. The fabric of pieces which are identifiable by form are discussed in terms of likely parallels among the regional wares which Morel describes.

My own impression of the black-glazed pieces from Via Gabina Site 11 is that meaningful visual classification of fabrics is impossible without the corroboration of form. Over and over, however, I see a mottled partly reduced body, of which the basic color may be pink, buff or orange. This body treatment does not fit into any of the earliest grouping of black glaze fabrics Campana A, B and C, although some examples of 'real' Campana B appear, as does the rare example of 'real' Campana C. Our typical body is not associated with a single slip treatment and the slips are far more various than the paste; they can be shiny hard excellent black, thin matte black, vari-colored, with an especially memorable iridescent olive green appearing often. There is a definite tendency for earlier forms and contexts (third c. B.C.) to be associated with very hard, shiny, iridescent slip finishes; for second century B.C. forms and contexts to show a higher concentration of Campana B and good imitations of it, and for later forms (probably first century B.C.) to be associated with thin, matt and crackled slip finishes.

 

Catalogue

This catalogue is organized from the earliest identifiable types to the latest, following arguments from Morel, passim.
The following pieces date to the end of the fourth c. B.C., or to the very early third c. B.C.:

Lamboglia 24 B/25 B, a small hemispherical bowl with moulded vertical fluting on exterior wall below narrow rim lip.



d1034    
                    VG11/77 G19 S B 3 (?)
Rim chip, rd 7.0
Lamboglia 24 B/25 B, Morel 2544a 1, cp. Morel 1571 series
Fabric is hard, fine 7.5YR 7/4 pink. Iridescent 7.5YR N2/ black glaze.
The decoration occurs on a number of form series in Morel (1571, 1572, 2421, 2541, 2542, 2544). The provenance of these pieces seems to suggest that the decoration was made in many regional centers, including Latium and Etruria.
Our piece looks most convincingly like 2544a 1. Most of Morel's examples of series 2544 are from Ensérune, and are equivalent to Lamboglia 24 B/25 B. Our chip looks like a very good quality piece, perhaps from the '24 B-25 B' workshop, even though it seems somewhat unlikely for this regional production to appear on the outskirts of Rome.
The style of decoration dates the piece to the later fourth and early third c. B.C.
Compare FP 79 (pl. 7), Morel Form 93, a high-pedestalled version of this form. Whereas d1034 has moulded fluting, however, the ribbing on Morel's example was drawn with a soft point and is not very well made.

Two open bowls which seem closest to Morel's 'céramique de Teano' by form. This production type has a characteristic groove on the lower wall. The identification is open to question, since the Teano slip tends to reddish, and the pieces generally have an 'exuberant' decoration which combines paint and stamps on the interior (cp. FP 83 and 84, pls. 6 and 42 and pp. 57-9); however, no decorated sherds answering to this description were found on Via Gabina Site 11.


d418                          VG11/78 L22-B-L23 A 2
Rim and wall, rd 29.0 ?
Morel 2585a 1 and 2585b 1.
Fabric is hard, fine, mottled 5YR 7/6 reddish yellow (orange to beige), with minute white inclusions.
Good glossy iridescent 10YR 3/1 very dark grey slip.
Fine shallow groove on lower wall.
'Céramique de Teano' is dated c. 300 B.C.
Compare grooved smallish bowl FP 487 (pl. 32) to d418 and d672.


d672                          VG11/79 J17-B-K17 C 2 + K17 C 2
Rim and wall, rd 18.0
Morel 2585b 1.
Fabric is fine, hard, mottled 10YR 7/3 very pale brown (orange to greyish brown). Good slightly glossy 2.5Y N2.5/ black slip. Fine shallow groove on lower wall.
Very confidently made with neat knife smoothing and thin hard slip. Date as d418, above.
The following are dated to the first half of the third c. B.C.:
A small deep cup with fairly wide curved horizontal rim. Likely parallels in Morel suggest that this cup was set on a pedestalled base.

d1008                    VG11/79 H15 1
Rim and wall, rd 9.5
Morel 1352b 1 and 1762a 1 are deep pedestalled cups with wide rims which are reminiscent of this piece.
Fabric is mottled reduced 10YR 7/3 very pale brown (grey beige). Thin hard shiny 7.5YR N2/ black slip.
Good quality.
Morel's 1352b 1 is from the 'petites estampilles' workshop, while 1762a 1 is 'Céramique de Teano'. Pieces from both workshops seem to appear at Via Gabina Site 11.
The date for both comparanda is the first half of the third c. B.C. No good parallels in FP.
The distinctively profiled base of a pedestalled bowl or cup.

d673                     VG11/79 G15S-B-H15 C 2
Base, bd 6.5
Lamboglia A 4C = 2784
g 1, 52 = Morel 2784g 1: numerous others in Morel, especially Morel 1151a 1, 2232e 1, 4244a 1.
Fabric is hard, fine, mottled and strongly reduced 10YR 5/2 grayish brown. Good fairly matte black slip on exterior to upper curve of base profile.
The distribution of the examples in Morel suggests that this is an 'Etruscanizing' form. The dates of Morel's examples are concentrated in the first half of the third c. B.C.

FP 263 (pl. 17 and p. 117) is very similar in form, fabric and slip treatment, while FP 57 (pls. 4 and 40, p. 48) gives the same exterior effect: the body of FP 57 is fluted, a decoration which Morel now dates to the first half of the third c. B.C.

Similarities of form, fabric and site provenance suggest that the two pieces described above may belong together (check).

The following pieces, dated to the early third c. B.C., are likely or certainly products of the 'petites estampilles' workshop:

A closed form, most likely of a small jug or pitcher, with scribed decoration, which is typical of the 'Etruscanizing' region:


d602                     VG11/79 H17 B 3
Wall sherd, md 12.0
Jug, Morel (1965) 58 c, Morel 5225a 1 or 5323a 1.
Fabric is hard, fine 10YR 6/4 light yellowish brown. Glossy iridescent 2.5YR N3/ very dark grey (black) slip on exterior only. Fabric like 'petites estampilles' at Via Gabina Site 11.
Scribed decoration of vertical lines and wide X with vertical slash.
Morel 5225a 1 is a product of the 'petites estampilles' workshop. The date of the decoration and of comparable types in Morel is the early third c. B.C.
Compare FP 318 (pls. 21 and 59, p. 133), Morel 58 c (p. 208). This jug form is particularly common in central Italy and at Rome.

A small version of Lamboglia 36 with a relatively very wide and thick rim.


d277 p217                VG11/76 H20 A 5
Rim to base, rd 14.5
Lamboglia 36, Morel 1324a 1.
Fabric is hard, mottled, 5YR 7/5 reddish yellow (medium pink brown). Glossy 7.5YR N2/ black slip, mottled to dark red. Slightly irregular delicate central 8-petalled rosette (Morel, fig. 5, slightly less detailed than no. 8, secondarily surrounded by a circle of very fine dots), surrounded by a deep off-round groove. Slip reserved under base.
Very elegantly and confidently made.
Morel considers 1324a 1 to be possibly a product of the 'petites estampilles' workshop. The body of this piece looks very similar in its mottling to other 'petites estampilles' wares, in particular, examples of Lamboglia 27B.
Morel dates 1324a 1 as the 'petites estampilles' workshop, to 285 +/- 20 B.C.

FP 127 (pls. 10 and 47, p. 72-3) is very similar in form and size, but is decorated very differently. FP rosette 166 (pls. 12 and 50, pp. 86-7) gives a somewhat similar impression to the rosette on d277. FP rosettes 64 and 271 are related, and Morel notes that this rosette type is characteristic of Rome (Morel, 1965, pp. 51 and 119).

A thick and 'nerveless' version of Morel 36C, a hemispherical bowl with a fairly wide curved rim.


d147 p129                     VG11/77 H24 E 3
Rim and wall, rd 18.0
Morel 36C = 1514f 1, Morel 1521a 1.
Fabric is dull grey brown, matte black slip. Drawing suggests knife smoothing marks over rim. In general, Morel found simplified versions of Form 36 to be common at Rome. He considers both these pieces to be products of the 'petites estampilles' workshop, and therefore d147 should date to 285 +/- 20 B.C.
Morel 1969 p. 83, fig. 13b = 1963, p. 206, b, from Aléria (check with Morel, 1981).
No good parallel in FP.

Lamboglia 23B fish dish with wide flared wall, dropped rim, and angular recess in floor.


d80 p65                       VG11/77 H24 S A 2
Base and wall, bd 6.0
Lamboglia 23B = Morel 1124a 1, Morel 1124c 1.
Fabric is hard mottled 5YR 7/6 reddish yellow (pink brown to light orange). Glossy iridescent 7.5YR N3/ very dark grey (blue black) slip.
Knife smoothing.
Morel 1124c 1 is a dish with a long pendent rim. An 'Etruscanizing' type, produced by the 'petites estampilles' workshop, which therefore dates the type to 285 +/- 20 B.C.
Compare FP 54 (pls. 4 and 39 and p. 47) ; the finish of d80 seems to be of significantly better quality.

Small open bowl with curved wall and applied widely recurving horizontal handle at rim.

 


d327                          VG11/76 G20-B-H20 2
Chip of rim and handle springs, rd 15.5
Lamboglia 42B b, Morel 4111a 1 cup with horizontal handles (check). Fabric is hard, fine, mottled 7.5YR 6/4 light brown (dull orange mottled to grey brown). Very smooth shiny 7.5YR N3/ black slip. Carinated kylix of a type which Morel identifies as a rare product of the 'petites estampilles' workshop (Morel 1969, p. 82, fig. 12a).

Small hemispherical bowl or cup with footring base.

 


d116 p101                     VG11/77 H19 N C 3
Base and wall, bd 5.0
Possibly Lamboglia 27B, angular slightly flared base ring.
Fabric is hard, fine, mottled TYR 7/6 reddish yellow (pink brown), occasional white inclusions. Iridescent glossy 7.5YR N3/ very dark grey (black) slip. Slip reserved under base.
Fabric as 'petites estampilles' type.
Four 8-pointed rosettes with interspaced dots surround the letter 'P' in a circular stamp.
The rosettes and the arrangement of the stamps are identical to Morel, FP (1965), no. 116, pls. 9 and 46 and p. 69, where, however, the central letter is 'T'. Morel further notes occurrences of the letters 'H', 'B', and ligatured 'HP', all likely from the 'petites estampilles' workshop. The three examples for which he gives provenances are from Rome, Lanuvium and Tivoli, all within the near vicinity of Via Gabina site 11 (Morel, 1969, p. 76 and notes).

The most common of any form in black glaze from Site 11 is Lamboglia 27B, a small hemispherical bowl (cp. Morel 2784a 1 and 2784b 1). This form has a varied history of production, but our examples seem to be almost entirely from a production which has been specifically studied by Morel (1969) and designated by him as the workshop of the 'petites estampilles'. This workshop existed
10 somewhere in or near Rome, judging by the common distribution of the ware in Latium and Etruria (Morel 1969, p. 94-103 and fig. 26, p. 95). Morel has thoroughly researched the likely date of this workshop (Morel, 1969, pp. 103-17) and set the production to the first half of the third c. B.C. In more recent work, he dates it to 285 +/- 20 B.C. (Morel, 1981, p. x).

Morel calls the fabric 'petites estampilles' because the decoration of Lamboglia 27 bowls from this workshop is often characterized by four small stamps in the floor, generally arranged on parallel axes. Single central stamps also appear in this ware, but the decorative system on this form does not use the grooves and rouletting which are often seen on other types of black glaze. A large number of stamps have been identified as characteristic of the 'petites estampilles' workshop (Morel, 1969, pp. 67-81, and especially figs. 3, 5 and 6).

The fact that the decoration is well understood makes it possible to certainly identify a number of bases from the Via Gabina site as products of the workshop. The bowls described here are all more or less certain examples of this production center, which Morel dates 285 +/- 20 B.C.

Pieces which are of 'petites estampilles' fabric and Lamboglia Form 27B are by far the most common identifiable fine ware from the site. This suggests a well-established occupation on the site in the first half of the third century B.C. The stratigraphic designation for the earliest context in which these bowls appear, however, is Phase 1C construction, which is dated by other wares and by a coin to c. 200 B.C., and therefore Period I occupation must have been well established significantly earlier.

All the examples of Lamboglia 27 on Via Gabina Site 11 fall within the subtype 'Lamboglia 27B', and the variation in curvature of the wall is very slight among the nine catalogued examples which I list below. I have subjectively ordered the rims from more curved to more open, since it has been suggested that this is the chronological evolution of the form (Morel 1969, p. 106), but the differences are so slight that I see no meaning to them.

It seemed worthwhile to catalogue so many nearly identical sherds to record accurately the great range of difference in fabric and especially in the color of the slip. Odd sherds of many more rims of this form (as many as 37 in total) were recovered from the site as a whole.

The bowls of Lamboglia 27B from Via Gabina Site 11 are of distinctively fine quality, but are not at all uniform in the impression given by the fabric. Most have a consistent fine paste with mottled coloring of orange or pink buff to grey brown. This mottled body colour, which certainly derives from a firing technique which included incomplete reduction, is very hard to describe objectively. Where a Munsell chart colour was taken, 7.5YR 7/4 to 6/4 (pink to light brown) is read fairly consistently, but this must be understood as a dominant color only. To underscore this, I include my subjective description of the fabric color after the Munsell reading.
The mottled body colour is consistent, however, in comparison to the colour of the slip, which varies greatly and completely unpredictably, even to mottled red and brown, as the pieces described below indicate. An iridescent lustrous olive green slip occurs, and many of the pieces show hints of this tendency. On the other hand, some pieces have a perfectly conventional glossy black slip. All these characteristics of fabric closely match Morel's description of the fabric (1969, pp. 65-66).

I have grouped bases with stamps of 'petites estampilles' type after the rims. Diligent searching did not produce any joins between such a rim and base among our examples, which underscores abundance of examples of this form on the site.

Morel catalogued thirty-three examples of Lamboglia 27 which he specifically described as bols à petites estampilles: FP 10, 39, 102, 103, 105-109, 184, 258, 261, 274, 323, 325, 361, 365, 366, 368-371, 407-409, 411, 412, 416-419, 458, 472 (list drawn from FP, pp. 239-41 and 257). Those mentioned are described as 'examples' and at one point, he describes examples of the type as 'innumerable' (p. 259, note 1). To my eye, the following 31 pieces may also belong to this category; the twenty which are underlined are more or less certain: FP 17, 18 (Lamboglia 27c), 43, 64 (La 27 b), 78 (La 27 b), 116, 132 (La 27b), 138 (La 27 ?), 154 (La 27), 164 (La 27b), 166, 183, 215, 216, 259, 271 (La 27a, oversize), 275 (La 27a), 298, 312 (La 27c), 331 (La 27b), 332 (La 27a), 333 (La 27a), 361, 410, 413, 414, 415, 424, 426, 445, 541 (La 27b).

This particular form, from this particular workshop, is therefore by far the most common distinctive type among those which Morel catalogued from Rome; it makes up more than ten percent of all the vessels catalogued. The fact that 15? of 100? pieces catalogued on Via Gabina Site 11 are of this single type is therefore not far out of line with the picture Morel gives of black-glazed wares at Rome.


Simple hemispherical bowls, as Lamboglia 27B:
Nine catalogued rims belong to this class:



1 d1023                       VG11/76 H18 R A 2
Missing from analysis: H18 A 2 = Destruction
Rim and wall, rd 15.0.
Lamboglia 27B, Morel 2784d 1 bowl.
Relatively thin-walled. Fabric is hard, fine and mottled, 10YR
7/3 very pale brown. Hard thin mostly matte black slip, 7.5YR N2/ black, with some faint iridescence.
(Here the thin body, pale fabric and black slip suggest 'Campana B'.)


2 d1007                       VG11/78   120 B 5
Construction of Phase IIA plumbing in Period I occupation.
Rim and wall, rd 14.5.
Lamboglia 27B, Morel 2784b 1 bowl.
Fabric is hard, fine and mottled, 7.5YR 7/4 pink. Mottled 7.5YR
N3/ very dark grey (black) glaze on the exterior, shiny black glaze in.


3 d188                        VG11/77 124 C 5
Missing from analysis.
Rim and wall, rd 14.5.
Lamboglia 27B, Morel 2784 bowl.
Relatively thin-walled.
Fabric is hard, fine and mottled, medium grey, pink to dull orange. Shiny brown black slip.
Fine narrow knife-smoothing lines on exterior.


4 d530                        VG11/78 H20-B-I20 3
Channel redirection, Phase IC ? or more probably IIA
Rim and wall, rd 14.0.
Lamboglia 27B, Morel 2981a 1 bowl. (?)
Relatively thin-walled.
Fabric is hard and fine, between 7.5YR 6/4 light brown and 6/6 reddish yellow, with minute mica and white inclusions. Mottled red to black exterior slip and matte 2.5YR 5/6 red very smooth interior slip.
Uneven horizontal knife-smoothing on the exterior.


5 d1019 p35                    VG11/76 G20 S B 3
Room XV, phase IC construction
Rim and wall, rd 14.0.
Lamboglia 27B, Morel bowl.
Fabric is hard, fine, mottled 7.5YR 7/4 pink (pinkish orange to dull brown). Shiny and iridescent 2.5Y 4/2 dark greenish grey (dark olive green) slip on the exterior, greenish black in. Knife-smoothing marks on exterior.


6 d129 p111                    VG11/77 H19 N C 3
Missing from analysis: H19 N E 3 = Period II terrace fill and Phase IIB reworking
Rim and wall, rd 15.0.
Lamboglia 27B, Morel 2784a 1 bowl.
Fabric is hard, fine and mottled, 5YR 7/4 pink (orange brown) with minute white inclusions. Glossy slip, 7.5YR N3/ very dark grey (greenish black), mottled in a wide band across the interior and exterior to 7.5YR 6/6 reddish yellow (golden brown).
Horizontal knife-smoothing marks at rim on the interior and exterior.


7 d845                        VG11/77 J19 B 8
[Phase IC floor makeup rejected for] Phase IIA construction fill by pottery.
Rim and wall, rd 15.0.
Lamboglia 27B, Morel ? bowl.
Relatively thin-walled.
Fabric is fine, mottled, 7.5YR 7/6 reddish yellow (orange to dull brown). Slightly shiny slip is 7.5YR N2/ black.
Knife-smoothing marks on exterior.


8 d127 p109                    VG11/77 F20 B (6/2)
Room XIII, bedrock cut channel fill (under ? phase IC construction fill)
Rim and wall, rd 14.0.
Lamboglia 27B, Morel 2784a 1 bowl.
Fabric is fine, mottled pinkish beige to light grey, with minute white inclusions. Glossy olive green slip, wearing off over the upper body exterior.


9 d841                        VG11/80 J15 B 3
Destruction of Period I terrace retaining wall and Period II occupation.
Rim and wall, rd 14.0.
Lamboglia 27B, Morel 2784 or 2788 bowl.
Fabric is very fine, mottled 7.5YR 7/4 pink (mottled pale grey to pale brown), fairly matte 7.5YR N3/ very dark grey (black) slip. Knife-smoothing on both interior and exterior.


d278                          VG11/76 G20 S B 3
Phase IC occupation
Wall sherd.
Lamboglia 27B.
Fabric is medium pink brown with minute mica and white inclusions. Glossy black slip. Most of wide-splayed graffito 'M' on wall. Lots of information missing here; I could not find this sherd in 1990 and the drawing is inadequate (a photo is needed).
Morel shows a graffito 'AN_' on a bowl from the Roman Forum (Morel, 1969, fig. 9)

Additional rims identified as Lamboglia 27B occurred in the following contexts:
G20 S B 3 (4x) Phase IC occupation
G19 S A 3 Undesignated
G20-B-H20 2 Undesignated
H16 A 3    Phase IIA occupation
H19 N 2    Period II occupation ?
J22 A 2    Room 26 ancient or villa destruction
L18 B 3    Southward extension of garden, Phase IIB
I20 B 3    Period I occupation
I22 C 3    (or 2 or 5) Opus signinum floor, Phase IIA (over Period I construction)
K19 N  A 3 Phase IIA occupation and IIB construction
H18 A  4    Period I terrace fill mixed with IIB construction
G24 N  x 2 Room 1 destruction over floor
K23 B 3 (2x) Opus signinum floor, Phase IIA (over Period I construction
K19 B 3 Room XVII & 37, Phase IIA occupation, IIB construction

Ten catalogued bases evidently belong with this group of Lamboglia 27 rims:


d273 p38                      VG11/76 G20 S B 3
Room XV, phase IC construction
Base, bd 5.0.
Fabric is very hard, fine, mottled pink to orange, with a few minute specks of mica and white inclusions. Very fine glossy black slip.
Underside of base unglazed, glaze mottled and spotty, partly missing on lower exterior wall.
Four small palmette stamps in floor (motif as Morel, 1969, fig. 5, no. 21 or 23), arranged on parallel axis.
Form of base, dropping under the floor, is reminiscent of Campana A.
For rosettes, compare FP 102 (pls. 9 and 45) ; also, 37 (pls. 3 and 39), which has just 3 rosettes.


d272 p39                      VG11/76 G20 S B 3
Room XV, phase IC construction
Base, bd 5.0.
Form of base, with rounded exterior, is somewhat similar to Morel 1965 base 17 (central Italy).
Fabric is very hard, fine, mottled pinkish orange to dull grey brown, with minute specks of mica and white inclusions. Very fine glossy black slip, iridescent on the interior.
Underside of base unglazed.
Part of two very elegant small 8-petalled rosettes (motif as Morel, 1969, fig. 5, no.11, but without lines between petals) in floor. For rosettes, compare FP 414 and 415 (pl. 38, p. 165), which seem to be single central rosettes; FP 192 (pls. 15 and 52 and p. 97, Lamboglia 34b), with lines, is also a single central rosette. In FP, Morel suggests that Lamboglia 34b shows Etruscan and fourth­-third c. B.C. connections.


d616                          VG11/79 115 B 3
Period II occupation above Period I terrace
Base, bd 5.0.
Form of base, angular and slightly dropping under floor, is reminiscent of Campana A.
Fabric is hard, fine, mottled 2.5YR to 7.5YR 6/4 light reddish brown to light brown, abundant minute mica. Glossy 7.5YR N3/ very dark grey (black) slip on the interior and exterior.
Underside of base reserved, with fingerprints and mottling around the exterior of the base.
Part of four extremely elegant small palmette stamps (motif closest to Morel, 1969, fig. 5, no. 31) in floor, set irregularly close, more or less on the same axis, on two irregular concentric circles. The palmettes are closest in elegance and form to FP 102 (pls. 9 and 45, p. 64), but lower details of palmettes are not visible on d616. There are clear parallels with Lamboglia 27b and the workshop of the 'petites estampilles' for this palmette motif.


d119 p102                     VG11/77 I19 W Ext. 1
Unstratified
Base, bd 4.5.
Base has unusually shallow floor, slight drop under floor.
Fabric is fine, mottled 7.5YR 7/4 pink (orange to dull grey), slightly micaceous. Glossy 7.5YR N2/ black slip.
Knife-smoothing marks in floor. Underside of base partly reserved. Four casually-impressed small incuse 8-petalled rosettes (Morel 1969, fig. 5, no 13) in floor.


d78 p67                       VG11/77 121 C 2
Missing from analysis: I21 A 2 = Squatter occupation or Period 2 villa destruction. In 1976, all 121 C is described as 'fill above floor'.
Base, bd 5.5.
Form of base is Morel 1965, form 17, central Italian.
Fabric is hard, fine, mottled 7.5YR 6/4 light brown. Glossy 7.5YR N3/ very dark grey (greenish black) slip.
Knife-smoothing marks on exterior.
Most of one (of four ?) small 8-petalled rosette (Morel, 1969, fig. 5, no. 7) in floor.
No good parallel in FP.


d618                          VG11/79 K14-B-K15 K14 E 1
Topsoil.
Base, bd 5.0.
Form of base is Morel 1965, form 17, central Italian.
Fabric is hard, fine, mottled 7.5YR 7/4 pink (dull orange to dull grey brown). Very glossy mottled 7.5YR N4/ dark grey (greenish black) to 7.5YR 5/6 to 5/8 strong brown (yellowish brown) exterior slip; fairly glossy 2.5YR 5/6 to 4/6 red (red brown) interior slip. Four very elegant small 8-petalled rosettes with dots between the petals, (closest to Morel 1969, fig. 5, no 17, and reminiscent of Lamboglia 7a stamp on Campana A).


d279 p174                     VG11/76 H20 2
Base, bd 4.5
Form of base suits Morel's description of the bases of the 'petites estampilles' workshop.
Fabric is hard, fine, mottled 5YR 7/6 reddish yellow (dull orange to grey brown). Shiny slightly iridescent 7.5YR N4/ dark grey (black) slip. Stacking ring in floor. Four stamps with an 'A'  with broken crossbar oriented diagonally to each other, as Morel, fig. 3 c. 'A' stamps with broken crossbar are well-attested from the 'petites estampilles' workshop. Our stamp closely parallels Morel 1969, fig. 5, no 49, but is significantly smaller. The smaller examples which Morel documents (fig. 6, nos. 33-34), are not as clearly marked and angular as ours. Morel doubts that this can be developed as a ligatured 'AMV' , as was proposed by Dressel: he believes it is simply an accepted graphe of the letter 'A', which also appears on coins in the first half of the third c. B.C.
No parallels in FP.


d281 p40                      VG11/76 G20 S B 3
Base, bd 5.5
Form of base suits Morel's description of the bases of the 'petites estampilles' workshop.
Fabric is hard, fine, medium pink brown, slightly micaceous. Glossy iridescent blue black slip.
Part of small stamped palmette, evidently as Morel 1969, fig. 5, no. 21, or 26, which is, however, slightly larger.


d280 p175                     VG11/76 H20 1
Base, bd 5.0
'Petites estampilles' base form.
Fabric is hard, mottled, 5YR 7/6 reddish yellow (light orange to pink orange). Glossy iridescent 7.5R 7/6 very dark grey (greenish black) slip.
Iridescent oval stacking ring in floor. Slip reserved under base.
Most of small stamped dot rosette (as Morel fig. 7d, but placement and size of dots on d280 is not as regular).
Dot rosettes are common in FP: especially 215 (pls. 15 and 53, pp. 102-3, but also 217 (pls. 16 and 53, p. 103), 218 (pl. 16, p. 103), 259 (pl. 18, p. 115). The many comparanda confirm that the motif is associated with Lamboglia 27 and the 'petites estampilles' workshop.


d120                          VG11/77 H18 A 4
Base, bd 5.0
Fabric is 7.5YR 7/4 pink (pink brown), dark inclusions. Slightly glossy 7.5YR N3/ very dark grey (black) slip, finger-printed and iridescent on the exterior. Slip reserved under base.
Gives an impression very similar to Campana B.
Four vestigial palmette stamps, with no good parallel in Morel, with placement on same general axes only, cp. Morel 1969, fig. 3i.

The following base is a product of the 'petites estampilles' workshop, judging by the stamp, but the form of the base is of a smaller bowl.

Small deep bowl, perhaps Lamboglia 24, a rare form in the production of the 'petites estampilles' workshop.


d77 p64                       VG11/77 120 3
Base, bd 5.0
'Petites estampilles' base form, but with a wide contact surface at bottom of base ring.
Fabric is hard, mottled 5YR 7/4 pink (pink brown), with minute white inclusions. Glossy iridescent 7.5YR N4/ dark grey (black) slip. Slip reserved under base.
Stacking ring in floor is discolored to 7.5YR 5/2 brown.
One tiny 5-point leaf stamp with short oblique stem (as Morel fig. 5, nos. 38-39) preserved.
For the shape of the leaf stamp, FP 261 (pl. 18, p. 116) is close; also 184 (pl. 13, p. 92), with stem pointing in the opposite direction. The association of the stamp with the workshop of the 'petites estampilles' is secure.

Besides the products of the 'petites estampilles' workshop, there seems to be at least one example of the 'group 96' workshop at Via Gabina site 11. The production center is somewhere in Latium or northern Etruria. Morel dates this production to 280 +/- ­25 B.C.
The main product of this workshop is a gently carinated bowl. The form, which does not appear in Lamboglia's typology, was first discussed by Morel in his work on the black glaze at the Palatine and Forum in Rome (1965). About twenty examples were extant in that collection, but the form is certainly not frequent at the Via Gabina.


d103 p93                      VG11/77 121 C 2
Rim and wall, rd 9.0
Morel 96A, Morel 2621g 1.
Fabric is hard, fine, mottled, 5YR 7/6 reddish yellow (pink brown), very slightly micaceous. Fairly matte 2.5YR 4/6 red (dark red brown) slip on exterior, very glossy black on interior. Morel dates the type to the early third c. B.C., as above.

FP 476 and 477 (pl. 32, pp. 181-2) and 528 (pl. 36, p. 198) are closest to the form of d103. FP 476 has a chestnut to red-orange slip.

The following pieces date to the mid third c. B.C.:

A small very shallow bowl with upturned plain rim and high pedestalled base appears once:


d153 p135                     VG11/77 H19 N A 3
Rim to base, rd 10.5
Lamboglia 4/54, Morel 2212a 1.
Fabric is hard, 5YR 7/4 pink (dull pink brown). Thin iridescent 7.5YR N4/ dark grey (grey brown) slip.
Very shattered, poor condition.
Two examples in Morel's 2212 series are from Minturnae. Morel dates the series to the mid third c. B.C.
No parallels in FP.

Another black glaze type which appears at Via Gabina Site 11 is a bowl with a beaded or banded rim, Sutri Form 7. This form, which is not particularly well-attested elsewhere, is the most common form in black-glazed wares from a pit in the vicinity of Sutri (Lazio) (Duncan, 1965, fig. 3, p. 141 and p. 144). The form does not appear in Lamboglia's typology or among the more important forms Morel studied in Rome (1965), although a number of rims from the sequence do appear in Morel and are noted as comparanda below.

The general form seems to be restricted to the 'Etruscanizing' area of Italy (in Morel's terms), and was probably made in a number of regional production centers. The pieces at Sutri are mostly in a more or less consistent fabric which does not convincingly fit any known class, and which Morel simply refers to as a local or regional fabric.

According to Morel, the form has an earlier and a later version. In the third century B.C., this type has a bead rim, which can vary a great deal in size, but is always fully rounded. Only one example from Sutri, no. 36, is of this type. A later variant of the form, typical of the middle of the second c. B.C. according to Morel, shows a much flatter 'ribbon-band' rim. Of the fourteen published examples from Sutri, thirteen are variants of this type. In contrast, both the earlier and later types appear at Via Gabina Site 11. What may be the most developed evolutionary version of the type at Via Gabina Site 11 (d541) is actually a carinated bowl with a vertical rim no thicker than the wall.

None of these rims joins to a base on the Via Gabina site. At Sutri, they have beveled footring bases, and are evidently unstamped. One example (no. 37) has a zone of rouletting in the floor. Since Morel does not discuss decoration (I could go look up some of his examples in their original publications), I am not sure whether any of our bases which are not assigned to particular forms might be likely partners.

Hemispherical bowl with bead rim, as early Sutri 7. There is no good parallel for any of the following three bowls at Sutri, but no. 36 is closest, in that it has a fully rounded bead rim. If Morel is correct that this type is earlier, the piece would be residual at Sutri.


d128 p110                     VG11/77 119 A 3 and H19 R A 2
Channel redirection in (IC or) IIA. Undesignated.
Rim and wall, rd 17.0
Gabina type 34, Sutri 7 nos. 36-37, Morel 2538b 1.
Fabric is very hard, fine, mottled, 5YR 7/6 reddish yellow (red) with minute white inclusions and a little mica. Glossy 10YR 3/1 very dark grey (greenish black) slip.
Morel suggests the third quarter of the third c. B.C. for the 2538 series.
No good parallels in FP.


d221                          VG11/77 1 20 B 3
Period I occupation.
Rim and wall, rd 13.5 (?)
Gabina type 34, Sutri 7, Morel 2437a 1, 2538c 1.
Fabric is hard, fine, reduced to light grey. Very glossy greenish black slip.
For all comparanda, Morel suggests the third quarter of the third c. B.C.
No good parallels in FP.


d840                          VG11/80 J15 2
Topsoil.
Rim and wall, rd 13.5 (?)
Gabina type 34, Sutri 7, Morel 2538a 1 and 2538c 1.
Fabric is extremely fine, very hard, slightly reduced to 7.5YR 6/4 light brown. Glossy 7.5YR N2/ black slip.
Knife-smoothing lines on both interior and exterior.
Morel suggests the third quarter of the third c. B.C. for the 2538 series.

FP 47 (pl. 4, p. 45), 321 (pl. 21, p. 134) ; 30 (pl. 4, p. 40) is possibly related. The fabric of these pieces seems to be quite diverse.

The following bowl clearly dates to the second half of the third c. B.C.:

Wide platter with wide horizontal rim, grooved at inner and outer top edges.

 


d184                          VG11/77 K18 3
Rim, rd 21.0
Clearly the same manufacture as Morel 1331a 1 and 1752a 1.
Fabric is hard, very fine, 7.5YR 6/4 light brown (pinkish buff). Matte 7.5YR N4/ dark grey slip. Campana B ?
Drag lines and knife smoothing marks.
Morel shows other forms with the same wide grooved rim. They are a local production from around Tarquinia.
He dates 1752a 1 c. 230 +/- 40 and 1331a 1 to the second half of the third c. B.C.

FP 483 (pl. 32, p. 184) is not a very close comparandum. Morel suggests that 483 is related to his Form 81; d184 seems to me to be more closely (but not very closely) related to his Form 79, which is common at Arezzo (Morel, 1963, p. 42). The Tarquinia connection seems to be the most relevant one.

The following examples of Lamboglia 36, a 'fish plate' with wide curved wall and dropped curving rim, appear to belong to the third c. or the first half of the second c. B.C. Morel's 1315 series is typical of Etruria.


d262                          VG11/77 K18 N 3
Rim, rd 22.5
Lamboglia 36, Morel 1315d 1.
Fabric is hard, medium grey with many small mica inclusions.
Fairly glossy overall black slip.
Knife smoothing under rim on exterior.
Morel dates this example c. 200 +/- 50 B.C.
No good parallel in FP.


d249                          VG11/77 K23 B 3
Rim and wall, rd 19.5
Lamboglia 36, Morel 1315b 1.
Fabric is very fine, hard, 7.5YR 7/2 pinkish grey (dull brown), with minute mica. Fairly glossy slightly iridescent 7.5YR N4/ dark grey slip.
Fine knife smoothing over rim and exterior. Morel dates this example 250 +/- 50 B.C. No good parallel in FP.

The following piece, the flared footring base of a small bowl, likely a deep bowl with recurved wall, probably dates c. 190 B.C.


d549                          VG11/79 H14 E B 3
Base and wall, bd 6.5
Morel base 121c 2, associated with Morel 2686b 1 and 2686c 1, a small deep bowl with recurved wall.
Fabric is 7.5YR 7/4 pink. Hard thin 7.5YR N2/ black slip. Campana B by fabric, form of base and palmette stamp and rouletting.
The underside of the base is chipped, but was evidently completely slipped. 
Elegant saucy upturn on foot of base, incised double circle in floor is outer demarcation of zone of fine rouletting, 1 small palmette stamp preserved.
No good parallel in FP.
The following pieces belong to either the third or the second c. B.C., and cannot be dated more closely.


A small heavy sharply carinated 'salt-cellar' appears twice:
d1016                         VG11/79
cleanup Rim, rd 8.0
Lamboglia 34b, Morel 2734b 1, 2744c 1, 2751c 1.
Fabric is mottled, 5YR 7/6 reddish yellow. Slip is 2.5Y N4/ dark grey.
The series dates to the third and second c. B.C., and this piece cannot be placed more closely.

FP 3 (pl. 2, p. 30, Lamboglia 34a), with single palmette stamp, 192 (pl. 15, p. 97) ; neither are particularly close comparanda, but likely connections with Etruria are suggested.


d112 p95                      VG11/77 H18 A 4
Rim, rd 6.0
Lamboglia 34b, Morel 2745c 1.
Fabric is hard, fine, 7.5YR 8/4 pink (pink buff).     Iridescent 10YR 4/1 dark grey (light brownish grey) slip.
Date as d1016.

FP 59 (pl. 4, p. 59) is quite close.


Small deep cup narrowing towards the rim:
d269                          VG11/77 ? unstratified
Rim and wall, rd 6.0
Sutri 12, Morel 84 = 2742a 1, Morel 2752b 1.
Fabric is hard, very fine, 5YR 7/6 reddish yellow (orange-beige). Slightly glossy 7.5YR N2/ black slip on both interior and exterior.
This type of cup has parallels to more than one series in Morel, and could date to either the third or second c. B.C.
No good parallel in FP. Sutri Form 12, no. 49, seems very close to d269 in form, but d269 is relatively well-made (Duncan, fig. 4, p. 142 and p. 146). The Sutri context suggests the second half of the second century B.C. (?? check Morel)

Hemispherical bowl with rounded 'ribbon-band' rim is a slightly later version in the evolution of Sutri Form 7: This piece has some reasonably close parallels at Sutri.


d1008                         VG11/77 G19 S A 2
Rim and wall, rd 16.0
Gabina type 34, Sutri 7, Morel 2535a 1, 2538c 1.
Fabric is fine, hard, mottled 10YR 6/2 light brownish grey to 7.5YR 7/6 reddish yellow.     7.5YR N3/ very dark grey (black) slip. Heavy version. Knife-smoothing. Slight chipping of slip at rim. Morel suggests the first half of the second c. B.C. for 2535a if the 2538 series dates to the third quarter of the third c. B. C. Either date is possible for this piece.
Compare FP 202 (pl. 17, p. 100), 384 (pl. 26, p. 158). At Sutri, nos. 26 and 37, the first in the local fabric, the second of better quality, are similar in form. To Morel, the whole evolution of this form is characteristic of Etruria or Latium. No. 37 at Sutri is decorated by a pair of concentric grooves which bound a zone of rouletting in the floor (Duncan, 1965, fig. 3 and pp. 144-5).

The following pieces belong to the second c. B.C.:

The following two examples of Lamboglia 36, a 'fish plate' with wide flared wall and wide curving rim, seem to be in Campana A, and therefore should be dated to the second, rather than the third c. B.C.


d1011                         VG11/78 119 B + K 3
Rim and wall, rd 18.0
Lamboglia 36b = Morel 1312b 1.
Fabric is slightly coarse, 7.5YR 7/4 pink, with numerous minute black inclusions. 10YR 4/1 dark grey (dull olive green) slip. Knife smoothing especially on interior and over rim.
Campana A?
In Campana A, Morel dates this form to the second c. B.C.
No good parallel in FP.


d326 p119                     VG11/76 F22 A 2
Rim and wall, rd 27.0 (?)
Lamboglia 36a = Morel 1312a 1.
Fabric is medium hard, 5YR 7/6 reddish yellow (light red brown), slightly micaceous. Glossy iridescent 7.5YR N4/ dark grey slip. Campana A?
Date probably as d1011.
No good parallel in FP.

Deep bowls with interior banding in thin white paint belong to a type which usually appears in Campana A or an imitation of it:

d320                     VG11/76 H19 R B 5 I19 B + K 3

Rim and wall, rd 14.0
Lamboglia 31, Morel 2154b 1.
Fabric is hard, slightly coarse, 2.5YR 6/4 light reddish brown.
Thin glossy 2.5YR N4/ dark grey iridescent slip, a single narrow band of thin white paint .7 cm below the interior of the rim.
Very casual horizontal knife-smoothing.
Morel dates the type to the early second c. B.C.
Morel specifically notes the lack of this form in the collections from the city of Rome (FP, p. 236).


d1033                         VG11/79 I15 2
Rim and wall, rd 14.0
Lamboglia 31, Morel 2154b 1.
Fabric is medium hard, slightly coarse, mottled 10YR 6/4 light yellowish brown. Matte 7.5YR N3/ very dark grey slip, two narrow lines of thin white paint below rim in.
Date and comments as d320, above.

The following three thin-walled bowls each have two narrow grooves on the exterior of the rim. While there is no fully convincing parallel in Morel for any of these, ties to Lamboglia 31 and to Sutri Form 9 suggest a date in the first half of the second c. B.C. A bowl similar to our first two examples of this type appears at Gabii (Vegas 1968, fig. 2, no. 9 and p. 19), and Vegas notes the similarity to the Sutri bowls (Duncan, 1965, 142, fig. 3, 40-43).


d559                          VG11/79 H15 A 5 + J15 2
Rim and wall, rd 17.0
Sutri 9 = Morel 2573a 1, Morel 2155a 1.
Fabric is hard 2.5YR 6/8 light red. Matte slip is black on the exterior and 7.5YR 5/2 brown (grey brown) on the interior.
Campana A ?
Two grooves below rim on exterior.
Compare FP 61 and 62 (pl. 4, pp. 49-50) to both d559 and d1035, below; also, Sutri, Form 9, fig. 3, nos. 40-43 and p. 145.
The evidence suggests that this is a form characteristic of the vicinity of Rome, and that the fabrics in which it appears are local or regional ones.


d1035                         VG11/79 H15 A 4
Rim and wall, rd 13.0
Sutri 9 = Morel 2573a 1.
Fabric is hard, fine, 10YR 7/2 light grey, slightly micaceous.
Matte black 7.5YR N3/ very dark grey (black) slip.
Very thin-walled.
Two very fine grooves below rim on exterior. See comments and date as for d559, above.


d847                          VG11/77 J19 E 11
Rim and wall, rd 8.0
There is no very likely comparandum in Morel for this small thin-­walled cup.
Fabric is mottled 7.5YR 7/2 pinkish grey (beige). Fairly matte 7.5YR N2/ black slip.
Very thin-walled.
Two very fine grooves below rim on exterior.
Fair quality.
See comments and date as for d559, above.
Compare FP 175 (pl. 14, p. 89), for which no diameter is given; the Sutri bowls are not really comparable for form, but the thin walls and similar decoration suggest that the three pieces may be contemporary.

The following small  cup with a very wide banded rim is a common type in central and southern Italy:


d1013                         VG11/79 115 B 4
Rim and wall, rd 8.0
Lamboglia 51/52, Morel 2526c 1, 2527e 1.
Fabric is fine, 5YR 7/6 reddish yellow.     Iridescent 7.5YR N4/ dark grey glaze.
Morel tentatively dates the type to the first half of the second c. B.C.
No parallel in FP.

The later version of Sutri 7, with 'ribbon-band' rim, is a relatively common form on Via Gabina Site 11 in its second century version:

Of the fourteen published examples of Sutri Form 7, five (nos. 24, 25, 29, 33 and 35) (Duncan, 1965, fig. 3 and pp. 144-5) are comparable in form to Via Gabina d82 and d83, below. This group of Sutri Form 7 also has five comparanda noted by Morel from the city of Rome, so that it is clear that the form was well established there.


d83 p75                       VG11/77 H18 A 4
Period I terrace fill mixed with Phase IIB construction. Rim and wall, rd 16.0
Gabina type 34, Sutri 7, Morel 2534a 1, 2535a 1.
Fabric is fine, hard, 5YR 7/4 pink (light pink brown). Glossy iridescent 7.5YR N4/ dark grey (blue black) slip.
Knife smoothing on both interior and exterior.
Morel 2534a 1 is Sutri Form 9, no. 24/5, dated by Morel to the second or third quarter of the second c. B.C. Morel 2535a 1 is from Cosa and dates 180 B.C. +/- 20. Both are from regional production centers.
Compare FP 461 (pl. 31, p. 178) with both d83 and d82, below.


d82 p73                       VG11/77 H18 A 4
Period I terrace fill mixed with Phase IIB construction. Rim and wall, rd 18.0
Gabina type 34, Sutri 7, Morel 2534b 1.
Fabric is fine, hard, mottled, 2.5YR 6/6 light red, with minute specks of mica. Almost matte 2.5YR 3/6 dark red to black slip. Confidently made, but slip is thin and mottled. Horizontal burnishing stripes on interior of rim.
Morel 2534b 1 is Sutri Form 9, no. 24/5, again dated by Morel to the second or third quarter of the second c. B.C.
Of the fourteen examples of Sutri Form 7, nos. 29, 30, 31 and 32 (Duncan, 1965, fig. 3 and p. 144) are close in form to the following three bowls.


d1021                         VG11/79 cleanup
Rim and wall, rd 18.0
Gabina type 34, Sutri 7, Morel 2534 series.
Fabric is very fine, medium hard, 7.5YR 7/6 reddish yellow, minute dot of mica. Fairly matte, thin 7.5YR N3/ very dark grey slip. Fairly thin-walled. Neat knife smoothing lines.
Morel dates the 2534 series to the second or third quarter of the second c. at Sutri; 2534c 1 dates to the first half of the second c. B.C.

FP 455 (pl. 31, p. 176) may be a bit earlier than d1021 if the sequence holds good; also FP 345 (pl. 23, p. 145). FP 147 (pl. 11, p. 79) shows some similarity to d1021 as well as to d911 and d541, following.


d911                          VG11/80 J15 A 3
Destruction of Period I terrace wall and fill for Period II terrace.
Rim and wall, rd 17.0
Gabina type 34, Sutri 7, Morel 2534b 1.
Fabric is mottled, 5YR 8/4 pink. Matte thin black slip. Fairly thin-walled. Knife smoothing lines over rim. Date as d82.


d541                          VG11/79 H17 2
Missing in analysis.
Rim and wall, rd 21.0
Gabina type 34, Sutri 7, Morel 2534b 1.
Fabric is hard, fine, mottled 7.5YR 7/4 pink (dull orange to cream grey. Almost matte mottled 2.5YR 5/6 red (red brown) slip, 2.5YR N3/ very dark grey (black) at exterior rim.
Very thin-walled.
Date as d82 (or later ?). Compare FP 28 (pl. 4, p. 39).

The following pieces belong generally to the second c. B.C.

A complete small hemispherical bowl as Lamboglia 21/25 appears once:


d271                          VG11/76 unstratified
Rim to base, rd 8.0
Lamboglia 25c, 21/25, Morel 2788b 1, 2788c 1.
Fabric is hard, slightly reduced 7.5YR 7/4 pink (buff), with minute white inclusions and some mica. Slightly glossy 7.5YR N3/ very dark grey (black) slip.
Not very elegantly done, knife smoothing striations on exterior. Morel dates the series in the second c. B.C.

FP
497 (pl. 34, p. 188) is a very good parallel.

Lamboglia 5 platter with curved but not re-entrant rim.


d294 p207                     VG11/76 H20 B 2
Rim and wall, rd 18.0
Lamboglia B 5A/B, Morel 2256b 1.
Fabric is hard, 7.5YR 7/4 pink (beige) with minute mica inclusions. Slightly glossy iridescent 7.5YR N4/ dark grey (black) slip. Campana B ?
Finger prints at base.
Morel dates 2256b 1 to the second c. B.C.: similar forms in Campana A are dated to the second half of the second c. B.C.

FP 131 (pl. 12, p. 75), a good quality example of Campana B, is close to the rim form of d294.

 

A shallow bowl with flared rim and flat floor is a type with a wide distribution in the western Mediterranean, but it is not common in Italy.


d627 p226                     VG11/76 121 C 4
Rim and wall, rd 12.0
Morel 2311d 1, 1211a 1, 1230 series.
Fabric is hard, fine, mottled 5YR 6/4 light reddish brown (orange to dull brown). Glossy overall mottled l0YR 4/2 dark greyish brown (dark olive) to 5YR 6/8 reddish yellow (orange).
Very confidently made.
Comparanda are common in Mediterranean France, Spain and Sicily. The second c. B.C. is a fairly secure date for this form, judging by Morel's comparanda.
No parallel in FP.

Wide shallow dish with ridges on wide rim top.


d1036                         VG11/79 J17-B-K17 L 3
Rim and wall, rd 20.0
Morel 1636a 1, 1646 series.
Fabric is l0YR 7/3 very pale brown. Thin 7.5YR N2/ black slip, chipping off. Campana B ?.
Morel describes all of the possible comparanda as 'Etruscanizing'. Morel 1636a 1, a good comparandum, is dated to the end of the second c. B.C., while the 1646 series has far too broad a range of dates (from the second half of the third to the first half of the first c. B.C.) to be helpful.
No parallel in FP.

Small heavy bowl in Campana A.


d276                          VG11/76 F22 S C 3
Base, bd 5.0
I am unable to suggest what form this bowl might be.
Fabric is fine, hard, mottled 5YR 7/6 reddish yellow (orange red to dull brown), with minute mica inclusions. Fairly glossy black slip. Stacking ring, discolored to brown black, forms irregular round 4.5 cms across in floor.
Three of four elegant small palmette stamps (as Lamboglia 1952, 5 variant, but also smaller), arranged radially and surrounded by a single groove and a zone of rouletting. Morel (1969) considers this a typical decoration layout on Campana A of the second c. B.C.

Wide hemispherical bowl in Campana A.


d443                          VG11/78 L22 A 3
Base and wall, bd 5.0
Bowls of Lamboglia 6, 27C and 36 are possible with this combination of base and wall (check Morel's equivalents).
Fabric is hard, fine, redder than 5YR 7/8 reddish yellow (pinkish orange), with many minute mica inclusions. Fairly glossy 7.5YR N3/ very dark grey (black) slip, slightly iridescent in, mottled dark red to black on the exterior. Slip reserved under base.
Three of four elegant palmette stamps (Lamboglia 1952, 5 c/d on Campana A) placed radially around four concentric grooves in center of floor.
The dating of this piece is uncertain; for now I think the second c. B.C. is best.

The following pieces date to the second half of the second c. B.C.

Lamboglia 5 platters.


d138 p120                     VG11/77 L18 A 2
Rim and wall, rd 19.0
Lamboglia B 5B, Morel 2257 series.
Fabric is hard, l0YR 7/3 very pale brown (pink grey). Slip varies from matte to glossy and slightly iridescent 10YR 3/1 very dark grey (black). Campana B ?
Morel dates the 2257 series to the second half of the second c. B. C.
No good parallel in FP.


d1031                         VG11/77 K20 2
Base and wall, bd 7.5
Lamboglia B 5B, Morel base 145a 1 (on 2257a 2 and 2257c 2 = Lamboglia 5 platters).
Fabric is medium hard, 7.5YR 8/4 pink (dull tan). Thin hard largely matte 10YR 3/1 very dark grey (dark brownish grey) slip. Campana B ?
Very shallow groove in floor over base.
Morel dates this base to the second half of the second c. B.C. No good parallel in FP.


d270                          VG11/76 H19 R A 4
Rim and wall, rd 20.0
Lamboglia 5/7, Morel 2265f 1.
Fabric is hard, fine, 7.5YR 7/2 pinkish grey (light pink). Mottled almost matte slip, varying from 7.5YR 5/4 brown to 7.5YR N4/ dark grey (black).
Morel dates 2265f 1 to the third quarter of the second c. B.C. No good parallel in FP.


d274 p191                     VG11/76 H19 R A 2, 4 + 5
Rim to base, rd 16.0
Lamboglia 5, Morel 2257b 1, 2286d 1, 22287a 1.
Fabric is hard, fine, 5YR 7/4 pink (beige) with minute white and mica inclusions. Slightly glossy iridescent 7.5YR N3/ very dark grey (brown black) slip.
Slip mottled around base exterior. Campana B ? or black Arretine
Very fine zone of rouletting in floor, marked off with a single groove in and a double groove towards the outer wall. Central circular groove around raised dot.
Morel 2287a 1 is in black Arretine. The three parallels suggest a date in the late second or first half of the first c. B.C.
No good parallel in FP.

Campana B bowl base, upturned foot ring.


d590                          VG11/79 H14 E A 3 +.H14 E B 3
Base and wall, bd 6.5
Morel base 145a 1, associated with Morel 2245c 1, wide hemispherical bowl.
Fabric is hard, fine, mottled 10YR 7/4 very pale brown (cream yellow to pale pink brown). Good glossy overall 10YR 3/1 very dark grey (black) slip.
Finger marks at base. Campana B.
Double grooves demarcate a zone of very fine rouletting, one tiny palmette stamp preserved in central area of floor.
The base with its saucy curve and raised palmette stamp is typical of Campana B and of the second half of the second c. B.C.
No good parallel in FP.

The following pieces date to the second half of the second c. B.C. or to the first half of the first c. B.C.

Lamboglia 7 platter.


d247                          VG11/77 119 C 3
Rim, rd 26.0
Lamboglia 7, Morel 2286f 1.
Fabric is hard, fine, 7.5YR 7/4 pink (cream grey). Fairly glossy 7.5YR N3/ black slip.
Campana B ?
The form is one which is typical of the 'Etruscanizing' area. Morel dates 2286f 1 to the second half of the second and the first half of the first c. B.C.
No good parallel in FP.

Bowls related to Lamboglia Campana B Form 6B (fish dish with curved rim).


d1054                         VG11/78 119 B + K 3
Rim, rd 19.0
Lamboglia B 6B, Morel 14431 1.
Fabric is medium hard, fine, 7.5YR 7/4 pink. Mostly matte 10YR 3/1 very dark grey (slightly olive) slip.
Wet-smoothing under slip. Quality not very good. Campana B?
Morel tends to date the 1443 series to the second half of the second c. B.C.
Not a very close comparandum in FP 292 (pl. 21, p. 125), which, however, is clearly Campana B or related by the shape of the base. The form appears at Sutri as Form 1; no. 4 is closest to the rim form of the d1054, but the Sutri example is larger, more complete and in the local fabric (Duncan, fig. 2, p. 140 and p. 139).


d158                          VG11/77 H18 A 4
Rim, rd 20.0
Lamboglia B 6B, Sutri 1, Morel 1441d 1.
Fabric is hard, mottled, 7.5YR 7/4 pink (dull orange to cream grey). Almost matte 7.5YR N2/ black slip. Traces of white paint below rim on interior.
Campana B?
Morel dates 1441d 1 100 +/- 50 B.C., in agreement with discussion of related forms at Sutri, Cosa and Gabii.
No good parallel in FP.


d905                          VG11/80 J15 3
Rim and wall, rd 16.0
Lamboglia B 6B, Morel 1441d 1, but with narrower rim than d158. Fabric is 10YR 6/3 pale brown. Thin matte black slip.
Piece is not very well made. Campana B?
Date as d158, above. No good parallel in FP.

Lamboglia 7 platter, very angular straight rim.


d374                          VG11/78 119 B + K 3
Rim and wall, rd 21.0
Lamboglia 7, Morel 2275b 1, 2284a 1 and e 1, 2283f 1.
Fabric is hard, fine, 7.5YR 8/4 pink (beige), micaceous. Fairly glossy good quality 7.5YR N2/ black slip.
Slip slightly chipped. Campana B ?
The form appears in several production centers, and can date from the second half of the second to the second half of the first c. B.C.
No good parallel in FP.
The following pieces may date to the second or first c. B.C., and cannot be dated more closely:

Carinated bowl with flared wall, narrow horizontal rim.


d1026                         VG11/76 H19 R 1
Rim and wall, rd 19.0
Morel 2646e 1, 2646f 1, 2652a 1, 2654c 1.
Fabric is fine, mottled 5YR 7/6 reddish yellow (bright orange with red orange core). Thin matte 7.5YR N3/ very dark grey (black) slip on interior and exterior.
Morel's series are Etruscan or Rome regional products. The type can date from the second c. well into the first c. B.C. The quality of this piece might support a second century date rather than first. I should mention the pieces at Sutri.

Lamboglia 3, small pyxis or ink-pot.


d328 p20                      VG11/76 F22 S C 3
Rim to base, rd 5.5
Lamboglia 3, Morel 7544b 1.
Fabric is fine, hard, 7.5YR 7/4 pink (light beige). Very elegant glossy 7.5YR N4/ dark grey (greyish black) slip.
Lamboglia thought this type was typical of Campana C, but Morel's examples of the series shows that this is an oversimplification. Morel dates the whole series of pyxides to the second or first c. B.C.
The general form is common in FP, but no examples are close to d328; however, d328 is very close in both form and fabric to Form 14 (no. 53) from Sutri (Duncan, fig. 4, p. 142 and p. 146).
30

Lamboglia 13, small ink-pot.




d1029                         VG11/79 H15 1
Base and wall, bd 6.5
Lamboglia 13, Morel 7741a 1.
Fabric is 7.5YR 7/6 reddish yellow (light pink orange). Thin shiny 7.5YR N2/ black slip on exterior only.
Morel 7741a 1 is a Rome regional product. He dates it only to the second or first c. B.C.

The following pieces date to the first c. B.C.

Lamboglia 1, wide shallow bowl with ridged exterior rim. The form is very common in the 'Etruscanizing' area, but only one example, which, however, preserves a complete profile, appears at Via Gabina Site 11.


d609                          VG11/79 115 A 5 + 6
Rim to base, rd 15.0
Lamboglia 1, Morel 2323 series, 2324a 1.
Fabric is fine, soft, 7.5YR 8/6 reddish yellow (light orange), shiny slightly iridescent 7.5YR N5/ grey (black) slip.
Ridged rim. Faint stacking ring in floor.
Morel dates the series to the first half of the first c. B.C. There is only one example of this very common form in FP, in Campana C and quite different in profile, it is not a particularly good parallel for d609.

The following form is best dated to the first half of the first c. B.C.

Small Lamboglia 16 bowl with carinated and recurved wall.


d437                          VG11/78 K22 C 6
Rim and wall, rd 14.0
Lamboglia 16, Morel 114, Morel 2841b 1 and 2841c 1.
Fabric is fairly hard, fine, 5YR 5/1 grey. Matte thin 5YR 3/1 very dark grey (black) slip.
Morel's comparanda suggest that the first half of the first c. B.C. is the most likely date.

Carinated bowl with flared wall, tiny horizontal rim (form as d1026, above)


d133 p115                     VG11/77 H19 2
Rim and wall, rd 18.0
Morel 2652a 1, 2654 series.
Fabric is hard, mottled 10YR 6/4 light yellowish brown to 5YR 6/6 yellowish red. Matte black slip is discontinuous on exterior wall.
31
Poorly made, with extremely irregular smoothing of wall, bubbles and drag lines.
The piece is not very convincing as black glaze, but clearly belongs to the tradition.
A variant of this form is already common at Sutri. Morel's forms are typical of Etruria and northern Italy, especially in the first half of the first c. B.C.

Pieces of the same or a very similar bowl also occur in the following contexts:

VG11/76 ? F20 A 2

VG11/77 G19 S A 4

 

Large bowl with flared wall, bead rim:


d906                          VG11/80 K16 K 4
Rim and wall, rd 21.0
Morel 2654 series.
Fabric description missing, worn red slip. Casually made, irregular outer wall. Comments and date as d133.


The following pieces date to either the first century B.C. or the early first c. A.D.


Lamboglia 16 wide shallow bowl.


d450     VG11/78 K22 C 5
Rim and wall,'rd 26.0
Lamboglia 16 = Morel 2851a 1, Morel 2276 series and 2277c 1. Fabric is very hard, slightly mottled 7.5YR 7/6 reddish yellow. Thin crackled matte 10YR 3/1 dark grey (slightly olive) slip. Poorly made.
Morel's 2276 series is a very late production of Northern Italy, and this piece seems likely to belong to such a production. The form appears from the first half of the first c. B.C., while the 2276 series is of Augustan/Tiberian date.


d131 p113                     VG11/77 J22 F 2
Rim and wall, rd 22.0
Lamboglia 16, Morel 2276 series.
Fabric is slightly coarse, 5YR 6/4 light reddish brown, with minute white inclusions. Slip is 5YR 4/1 dark grey (dark chocolate brown) slip varying from matte to glossy.
Knife smoothing and drag lines.
The piece is not at all convincing as black-glazed, although it certainly belongs to the tradition, and should probably be dated to the Augustan/Tiberian era.


d848 p187                     VG11/76 H20 B 2
Rim and wall, rd 26.0
Lamboglia 16, Morel 2276 series.
Fabric is 5YR 7/6 reddish yellow. Slip is 5YR 5/1 grey, mottled to red on the exterior.
Knife smoothing over walls on both interior and exterior. Comments and dating as d131, above.

Unguentaria with flat base, long neck and tiny horizontal rim.


d585                          VG11/79 G15 S 2
Rim to base, rd 2.5
Haltern type 31 (not in Morel).
Fabric is fine light orange with extremely smooth surface. Matte red brown slip on rim and part of exterior of neck.
The type dates from the Augustan period through the first half of the first c. A.D. or slightly later (Vegas 1968, p. 31; Pohl 1970, p. 82, no. 43).
No parallel in FP.


d64 p59                       VG11/77 L18 B 3
Neck to base, bd 1.5
Haltern type 31.
Fabric is very fine orange-buff, slightly micaceous. Matte orange brown slip over rim and part of body.
Comments and dating as d585, above.
The following important pieces are not yet adequately identified:

 

Base of wide bowl, with a stamp typical of the 'petites estampilles' workshop.


d79 p66                       VG11/77 122 C 5
Period I construction.
Base, bd 7.0
Wide bowl, simple slightly beveled footring base.
Fabric is highly overfired very hard reduced l0YR 5/3 brown (grey brown). Glossy 2.5YR N4/ dark grey (greenish grey) slip on interior, black on exterior. Entire exterior of base reserved (?). Campana C ?
The elegant triskele stamp in the center of the floor is reminiscent of a stamp type in the repertoire of the 'petites estampilles' workshop of the first half of the third c. B.C. Ours differs, however, in that the feet on this stamp are pointed like a ballet dancer's. Furthermore, this base has a groove marked in the floor just above the base ring, and although this added decoration was not used for Lamboglia 27B by the 'petites estampillesI workshop, it is perhaps possible with other wider bowl forms. The fabric description is also fairly close to that of Campana C, a largely Sicilian production, and the triskele is associated with Sicily, which would associate this stamp with forms of the second or first c. B.C. The context seems to be earlier than that, however.
No parallel in FP.

Four triskele stamps appear on a vessel from Lanuvium (NSA 1966, p122). (Paul's note)
In his study of the workshop of the 'petites estampillles', Morel says that triskele stamps, which are very rare, appear on two vases from the same tomb at Aléria in the Musee d'Aléria (Morel 1969, p. 115).


Bibliography (all the following from Morel's basic bibliography):

 Balland, A., Céramique étrusco-campanienne à vernis noir (Fouilles de l'Ecole Frangaise de Rome à Bolsena) (Poggio Moscini), III. 1, MEFR suppl. 6, Paris, 1969. Important for Campana B. UA N 5750 F76 t.3 fasc.1

Duncan, G. C., "Roman republican pottery from the vicinity of Sutri (Sutrium), PBSR 33 (1965), pp. 134-76.

Fiumi, E., "Volterra. Gli scavi degli anni 1960-1965 nell'area della necropoli de Badia", NSA 1972, pp. 52-136.

Gianfrotta, P. A., "Scavi nell'area del Teatro Argentina (1968-1969): ceramica a vernice nera e altri materiali", BCAR 81 1968-1969 (1972), pp. 37-72.

 Lake, A. K., "Campana supellex (the pottery deposit at Minturnae)", Boll. dell'Assoc. internaz. di Studi Mediterranei 5, 1934-1935, 4-5, pp. 97-114.

Lamboglia, N., "Per una classificazione preliminare della ceramica campana", Atti del Primo Congresso Internazionale di Studi Liguri (1950), pp. 139-206, Bordighera, 1952.

Mercando, L., "Portorecanati (Macerata). La necropoli romana di Portorecanati", NSA (1974), pp. 142-430.

Montagna Pasquinucci, Marinella, "La ceramica a vernice nera del Museo Guarnacci di Volterra", MEFRA 84 (1972) 1, pp. 269-498. UT D 11 E4; UA (partial xerox).

Morel, Jean-Paul, "Céramique á vernis noir de Pompeii", RCRFA 7 (1965), pp. 81-103.

Morel, Jean-Paul, Céramique á vernis noir du Forum Romain et du Palatin, planches et texte, Ecole Frangaise de Rome, Mélanges d'Archéologie et d'Histoire, Suppléments 3, Paris, 1965.

          , Céramiques campaniennes: les formes, planches et textes, Bibliothéque des Ecoles Frangaises d'Athénes et de Rome, Rome, 1981.

          , "Etudes de céramique campanienne, I: 1'atelier des petites estampilles", MEFR 81 (1969), pp. 59-117.

          , "La céramique campanienne: acquis et problémes", (real title?), Céramiques hellénistiques et romaines (Annales littéraires de 1'Université de Besangon, vol. 242), date required.

          , "Notes sur la céramique étrusco-campanienne. Vases á vernis noir de Sardaigne et d'Arezzo", MEFR 75 (1963), pp. 7-58.

 Pailler, Jean-Marie, "Les pots cassés des Bacchanales. La couche d'incendie d'un sanctuaire de Volsinii et la chronologie de la céramique campanienne", MEFR XCV (1983), pp. 7-54. Xerox

Taylor, D. M., "Cosa: black-glaze pottery", MAAR 25 (1957), pp. 65-193.

From Morel's annotated bibliography (pp. 533-574):

A. J. N. W. Prag, F. Schweizer, J. L. W. Williams et P. A. Schubiger, "Hellenistic glazed wares from Athens and Southern Italy: analytical techniques and implications", Archaeometry 16 (1974), pp. 153-187.

Tchernia, A., review of Ostia II (how to organize a site report), BABesch 45 (1970), pp. 242-7.

Lamboglia, N., "La ceramica come mezzo e la ceramica come fine", Atti del convegno internazionale di studi sui problemi della ceramica romana di Ravenna, della Valle Padana e   dell'alto Adriatico (Ravenna, 1969), Bologna 1972, pp. 37-41. NK 3850 P76 Robarts.

Morel, J.-P., "La vaisselle de table á Rome aux IIe et Ier siéc1es avant J.-C. et au Ier siécle aprés J.-C.: contribution á 1'étude du luxe", Annuaire de 1'Ecole Pratique des Hautes-Etudes (IVe section) 1963-64, pp. 327-334.

          , "Céramiques d'Italie et céramiques hellénistiques", Hellenismus  in Mittelitalien (Kolloquium in Göttingen,   1974, Göttingen, 1976, II, pp. 571-501.

On how to publish black glaze:

D. M. Taylor, review of M. Bernardini, Vasi dello stile di Gnathia..., AJA 66 (1962), p. 425.

M. Almagro Gorbea, review of Morel, Forum romain, Ampurias 27-27 (1964-65), pp. 397-9. 

M. Vegas, BJ 166 (1966), pp. 657-8.
DD 491 R4B7 Robarts (Xerox)

On Gnathian:

T. B. L. Webster, "Towards a Classification of Apulian Gnathia", Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies (University of London) 15 (1968), pp. 1-33.

On Campana A:

J.-P. Morel, "Aspects de 1'artisanat dans la Grande Gréce romaine", Atti del XVo Conv. de Studi sulla Magna Grecia (Taranto, 1975), Naples, 1976, pp. 263-324.
DG 55 M3C6 1976 Robarts (Xerox)

On Campana C:

P. Pelagatti, "Stato e prospettive degli studi di ceramica romana in Sicilia", RCRFA 11-12, 1969-70, pp. 76-89.

Black glaze, CVA Italia:

B. Becatti, CVA, Italia, 16, Musei comunali umbri, 1, Rome, 1940.

D. Levi, CVA, Italia, 8, Regio Museo Archeologico di Firenze, not dated.

A. Rocco, CVA, Italia, 22, Napoli, Museo Nazionale, 2, ceramiche delle fabbriche tarde, Rome, 1953.

          , CVA, Italia, 24, Napoli, Museo Nazionale, 3, Rome, 1954.

G. Riccioni, CVA, Italia, 34, Museo del Teatro Romano di Verona, 1, Rome, 1961.

M. P. Rossignani, CVA, Italia, 46, Museo Nazionale de Antichitá di Parma, 2, Rome, 1970.

F. W. Porten Palange, CVA, Italia,  47, Como, Civico Museo archeologico "Giovio", 1, Rome, 1970.

Inkpots:

E. Sjöqvist, "Morgantina: Hellenistic Inkstands", AJA 63 (1959), pp. 275-7.

South Italy:

L. Merzagora, I vasi a vernice nera della collezione H. A. di Milano, Milan, 1971. (From Ruvo di Puglia)

Central Italy:

Roma medio repubblicana. Aspetti culturali di Roma e del Lazio nei secoli IV e III a.C, Rome, 1973. DG 78 R58 Robarts (Xerox)

Gabii:
M. Vegas, "Riimische Keramik von Gabii (Latium)", BJ 168 (1968), pp. 13-55 

          , "Estudio de la cerámica del sondeo ante el templo de Gabii", Cuadernos de Trabajo de la Escuela Española de Historia y Arqueologia en Roma 12 (1969), pp. 93-140.

Lanuvium, Lavinium, Minturnae
Ostia:
M. S. Arena, "Ceramica a vernice nera a Ostia", Archeologia (Rome), 38 (1967), pp. 94-97 

F. Zevi, [Céramique d'Ostie], in Roma medio repubblicana, pp. 343-63.
See also Ostia I and II 

Palestrina:
D. Vaglieri, "Palestrina. Scavi...", NSA 1907, pp. 132-144 

Rome:
F. E. Brown, "The Regia", MAAR 12 (1935), pp. 67-88 

I. S. Ryberg, An Archaeological Record of Rome from the Seventh century to the Second Century B.C., London Philadelphia, 1940. (Morel shows no great enthusiasm for this. 

Carettoni, G., "Saggi per uno studio della casa di Livia", NSA 1953, pp. 126-47.

          , "Roma (Palatino). Saggi nell'interno della Casa di Livia, NSA 1957, pp. 72-119.

          , "Roma (Palatino). Scavo della zona a sud-ovest della Casa di Livia. Prima relazione: la casa repubblicana", NSA 1967, pp. 287-319.

L. Mercando, "Area sacra di S. Omobono. Esplorazione della fase repubblicana. Saggi di scavo sulla platea dei templi gemelli", BCAR 79, 1963-64, pp. 3-67.

Morel, J.-P., "Fouilles à Cozzo Presepe, près de Métaponte", MEFR 82 (1970), pp. 73-116.

F. Coarelli, J.-P. Morel, M. Torelli et al., "La ceramica di Roma nei secoli IV e III a.C., Roma medio repubblicana, 1973, pp. 43-72.

Tivoli:
U. Antonielli, "Tivoli. Fossa votiva di etá romana, repubblicana e con materiali arcaici, scoperta in contrada 'Acquoria'", NSA 1927, pp. 215-49 

D. Faccenna, "Tivoli (Piazza D. Tani). Necropoli del V-IV secolo av. Cr.", NSA 1957, pp. 123-33.

C. F. Giuliani, Tibur (pars prima), Forma Italiae, Regio I, vol. 7, Rome, 1970.

Tusculum, Tellenae, Anagnia
Ciciliano (Roma):
L. Berni Brizio, "Ritrovamenti in localitá 'Ospedale S. Giovanni' presso Ciciliano (Roma)", Atti del Centro Studie documentazione sull'Italia romana 2 (1969-70), pp. 135216 

Pomezia, Aquinum
Etruria
Pyrgi:
A. Melucco Vaccaro, "La ceramica etrusca a vernice nera e ceramiche ellenistiche varíe", Pyrgi.    Scavi del santuario etrusco (1959-1967), NSA, IIo suppl. al vol. 24, 1970, 2 vols. Rome, 1970, passim 

Cosa:
F. E. Brown, F. Coarelli e P. A. Gianfrotta, "Cosa, ceramica a vernice nera ('deposito Al), Roma medio repubblicana, Rome, 1973, pp. 365-9. 

***Lucus Feroniae, Populonia, Roselle (I gave up here, on p. 556). 

Pp. 572-574 on Mediterranean shipwrecks with black glaze:

F. Benoit, L'épave du Grand Congloué à Marseille, Supplement 14 to Gallia, 1961.

E. Hamon e A. Tchernia, "La céramique campanienne", in A. Tchernia, P. Pomey et al., L'épave romaine de Madrague de Giens (Var), XXXIVe suppl. à Gallia, get date.

G. C. Duncan, "Roman Republican Pottery from the Vicinity of Sutri (Sutrium)", PBSR 33 (1965), pp. 134-. 

Perez Ballester, J., "Las ceramicas de figuras negras, figuras rojas y sobrenpintades de Gabii", CTEER XV 1981, 17-56 7823. From end V to first half III B.C.

K. M. Phillips, on 'Papena' 

All text and images copyright © 2002 by Walter Widrig and Rice University. Last updated June 2005 by dmc-info@rice.edu.